Computer Part-2. Processors!! What does i3,i5,i7 mean?

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Part-1 (Computer part-1) of computer was all about, how a computer takes in info.. In this part-2 of computer let’s see what a processor does and how to choose a processor!! This is still an arguable and ground breaking issue …

processor is commonly referred to as the CPU. It can process computer instructions per second measured in hertz. So, it is important to check the clock speed… Like 2 GHz, 2.5 GHz etc..

When it comes to processors, it might be of any company Intel or AMD, the specifications we need to look at, are the same. Few important specs are: number of cores,  32 bit or 64 bit, Cache.. Let’s see each of them,

 

Number of cores (multi-core) 

We are so much familiar with the words single core, dual core, quad core etc.. Dual core has two single cores and quad core has four single cores. In simple words a single core is like one calculator, a dual core has two calculators.

This does’n mean that a 2 GHz dual core is equal to a 4 GHz single core in performance. All this means is that you have two 2 GHz cores working for you instead of one. This is so important to understand the difference, most people confuse here in selecting.

As it goes above, dual core has two calculators and single core has one calculator, if we give an instruction, suppose a mathematical calculation, we can use only one calculator at a time. Having two calculators or having dual core doesn’t make our job any faster in this case. Same is the case with dual core.. Then what is the use in getting dual core or even quad core?? It is so simple answer, when we give multiple instructions or in this case two mathematical calculations. Then each mathematical calculation uses one calculator, with this the two tasks will be completed in very less time..

So, number of cores is equal to number of calculators.. In order to make use of all the cores present there is something called “multi-threading.” A program that’s multi-threaded – written for more than one core – can take advantage of a multi-core processor, even for only one operation by dividing  it among the cores. Multi-cores benefit isn’t necessarily one of speed, but one of smoothness.

It’s so important to know that the extra cores may go to waste. More than that, more cores means more power draw and with that more heat. In a notebook, these become serious considerations.

32 bit or 64 bit? How to choose?

 

Every  hardware component in a laptop requires what’s called an “address” and it is normally be occupied by memory. Your computer knows everything in it by its address, and everything uses memory addresses. So if you only have 4 GB worth of addresses, all the other parts are going to start eating into that, leaving part of the 4 GB of physical memory you have untouched. This is why when you put 4 GB of memory into a Windows XP or Windows Vista 32-bit machine, Windows doesn’t give you the full 4 GB – it may give you as little as 2.5 GB or as much as 3.5 GB, depending on the hardware you have in your machine.

What a 64-bit processor and 64-bit operating system does is dramatically raise the amount of memory your computer can address. By increasing this limit, it allows the computer to see the full 4 GB and still have room for everything else. Still, the move to 64-bit, provided you’re running at least 4 GB of memory can generally be beneficial.

Cache:

 

Cache is basically a memory, or RAM, that’s been built into the processor. if cache is so much faster than memory (and it is), why bother with memory at all? Why not just integrate all that memory into the processor itself? Because memory is physically huge. Sure, it’s not that big when you look at a processor or a stick of memory, but on a typical processor, the L2 cache takes up roughly half the die. So if as little as 4MB of cache takes up that much space, try to fathom how much space 1GB would need.

So, don’t worry much about Cache

Now, let’s see Intel’s i3, i5, i7 processors!!

As long as you understand the above specifications and what each specification does, you are good to go…

First of all,these terms correspond to processors from the specific brand of Intel.

Before you make a purchase though, you should really think about what you are going to do with you computer.  If you are just using your computer to email, surf the web etc…You will be just as fine with a Core i3.

If you are editing multiple files in Adobe Flash, with virtualization software, playing the newest RPG computer game you may notice the Core i5 to be much more faster. The Core i5 is great.

The Core i7 are the current most expensive and top of the line from the Core series of Intel processors. For most computer users, the i7 is probably much more than they’ll actually need or even think they need.  But, if you want the best of the best that will run your video rendering programs, giant RPG games, and many other higher technical programs, go for i7.

There are still lot more to talk about computer which we would do in the next part!!:)

Deep web and dark web??

Did you access your email or facebook or twitter or used drop-box today? If you did any one of those, then you accessed the deep web. The deep web isn’t some mysterious place, it’s just a collection of users private data. It’s hidden because we don’t want anyone to access our private information through facebook or twitter or data on dropbox.

It was estimated that the deep web is about 95% of all the data available online!!

The dark web is similar to the deep web in the respect that it is hidden from the normal web. However the dark web is not information that is not linked, rather it is purposely hidden. To access the dark web you need to use special tools like Tor or Freenet. These are the only ways to get to this hidden content. Though the deep web makes up 95% of all the internet the dark web only consist of about .03%. But that small section has millions of monthly users. The dark web is usually what people actually mean when they refer to the deep web.

 Deep web and Dark web aren’t same. The deep web is on the internet that has the stuff on the internet that can’t be accessed by our traditional search engines like Google. “Dark Web” on the other hand is a term used to describe areas on the internet accessible only through some softwares like TOR. It is the encrypted network that exists between TOR  servers and their clients. As the dark web is pretty much hidden, it is also used for some illegal things. But i have read that the dark web was created by US Navy for transmitting secured information.

What do you think?

Image- Deep-web

 

BLOGGER RECOGNITION AWARD

Thank you so much Sahana from “Jazz lily” for nominating me for this Blogger Recognition award. She is a very talented writer. And her blog is really good. Go ahead and check out her blog.   Jazz lily

Here are the rules for this award…

Rules:

(1) write a post to show your Award

(2) Acknowledge the Blogger that nominated you

(3) Give a brief story about how you get started blogging

(4) Give two pieces of Advice for new bloggers

(5)  Nominate the deserving 15 bloggers

So, here is how it all started. The idea of creating something like a website, which should contain all the stuff related to Science and Technology, was on my mind for so long. Before I started this blog, I don’t know where to start, I literally searched every possible source. In this search, I learnt so much about SEO(search engine optimisation) and stuff, with GREAT struggle, I actually created a free self-hosted website which shows adverticements more than my articles.

And I realised that building a self-hosted website actually need skills which comes through experience. Finally I thought of creating some blog, where I don’t need to worry about anything but content. That is how I came across WordPress.

And my blog’s Title!!

Well… I wanted my blog to be useful, whoever reads it, should be able to understand and finally I wanted it to be cool;)

Advice for new bloggers:

I am not so experienced or famous here. But I have spent more than a year here. So, here are two tips from what i have learned.

  1. Don’t write trending topics only to get readers, write what’s on your mind.
  2. Read and review other blogs…
  3. One extra suggestion for YOU!! People suggest to tag and categorize but they won’t tell how many tags are to be given.. The fact is wordpress do not put your article on to the followed tags portal( where people search and read article on wordpress) if you tags count is more than 15. The same is with the categories…

Finally here’s the tough part of any award post.. NOMINATIONS!!! I have nominated a few of my favorite blogs. Some of he blogs in this list,,, I visit them once in a while just to read the new articles if any.. Many bloggers are fed up with the awards and stopped doing award posts. No problem, do write if interested… But I am so glad for this nomination. Again, thank you so much Sahana for nominating me.

NOMINATIONS:

Sickphysics

Mathsbyagirl

Iridescence

Smiling all the way to heaven

Scientificlove

Gaurish4math

Entropy of consciousness

Richard

t3chagent

Weijie

Keithgarrettpoetry

Wanderingviolet

Arpita

Breezing Whims

Laika

Life event observation

LosiLosLoco

Himali

Science and rationality

Jessie

Never stop exploring

Mithai

Muskanreadsandwrites

 

 

Boomerang!

Boomerangs have been around for thousands of years now. Traditionally, returning boomerangs are lightweight, made of wood, and consist of two separate wings which meet at an angle at the joining.

All boomerangs aren’t made to come back! Some are made just to hit the target. Now let’s see, how a coming back boomerangs work?

The top and bottom portions of a boomerang are made in an aerodynamic shape or an airfoil shape. Top one is Leading edge and the bottom one is trailing edge.  When boomerang is thrown and the air passes through this shape, it results in a lift as shown below.

airfoil_incorrect

When you throw a boomerang, there are two speeds to be considered, one in the forward direction and the other is rotating speed. This makes it fly and rotate at the same time. As the boomerang spins through the air, the wing at the top of the spin is moving through the air at a faster rate than the wing at the bottom. This makes the top portion generate more lift than the bottom portion as it cuts through the air.

brng

Because the top portion of the boomerang is moving faster than the bottom portion, some torque is generated, which makes the boomerang tilt the plane of rotation slightly such that, the boomerang ends up flying in a curved path through the air. This makes the boomerang come back. It’s not easy to catch the boomerang back. It depends on the angle and force with which you throw with..

 

 

All those images are from Google!

 

Light bulbs! History and science…

Now, let’s see the history and science behind “light bulbs”!

The first ever electric light was invented by a chemist Humphry Davy, called “arc lamp” named for the bright arc of light emitted between its two carbon rods.. Later on, incandescent light bulbs with a carbon rod in a nitrogen filled glass cylinder were invented by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans. They sold their patent rights to Thomas Edison in 1879.

The first practical and more efficient incandescent light bulbs were invented by Edison. Edison and his team discovered a carbonized bamboo filament that could burn for more than 1,200 hours. Bamboo was used for the filaments in Edison’s bulbs and later on tungsten was used.

After that we had neon bulbs, fluorescent lamps, LEDs and so on..

History is done! let’s talk science…

When a light bulb is connected to an electric power supply, an electric current flows from one metal contact to the other. As the current travels through the wires and the filament, the filament heats up to the point where it begins to emit photons, which are small packets of visible light.

Fluorescent lamps
They work by ionizing mercury vapor in a glass tube. This causes electrons in the gas to emit photons at UV frequencies. The UV light is converted into standard visible light using a phosphor coating on the inside of the tube. The white coating we see on a tube light is actually the white phosphor coating from the inside.. 
LEDs
The basic thing a semiconductor does is, it allows current to pass through it only one way. Semiconductor has two layers, first layer has exited electrons in it and the other has holes with more kinda relaxed state. When electrons are passed through first layer and enter the second layer, the electrons release some energy as light. As the name suggests light emitting diode.
The invention of light bulb is one of the significant revolutionary inventions of all time.
INFORMATIC COOL STUFF!

Science of Muscle building!

“Muscles”, there are three types of them Cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscles. Building muscles usually refered to building skeletal muscles

While you use your muscle to lift something, your muscle experience some tiny tears in the muscle fibers. This is the first step of muscle growth. So, tiny tearing of muscle fibers is good in this context. When muscle breaks, something called cytokins are released. These repair the muscle, that’s the time when the muscle grows.

But the correct amount of tension is required for a muscle to undergo tiny tears, which with the help of protein leads to muscle growth. That’s the reason why body building experts suggest to increase tension in the muscle gradually. In other words, gradually increase the weights you lift.

On the other hand, people who do calisthenics or body weight workouts, must know how to increase tension by incorporating compound movements where ever possible. Calisthenic exercises mostly have compound movements, which is good and absolutely helps build muscle. Personally I feel body weight workouts are the best. Because there is a lesser scope of getting injured, it has compound movements and the “burn” we feel after an intense body weight session is amazing.

The “burn” you feel after an intense workout is simply an infusion of lactic acid in the muscle, which is produced as a muscle burns its energy stores. The pump you feel when training is a result of blood being “trapped” in the muscles.

If a workout causes too many micro-tears, then the body will fail to fully repair the muscles, and muscle growth will be stunted. If a workout causes optimal micro-tearing but the body isn’t supplied with sufficient nutrition or rest, no appreciable amount of muscle growth will occur.

Building is all about exercising with correct tension, sufficient amount of rest and good food! And to take every nutrient correctly, for proteins sources, read more about the protein sources here Top 5 vegetarian protein sources.

Took that cool muscle GIF from Google😉

 

 

Space Elevator! Possible?

The idea of a space elevator has been around for over a century. Using an elevator is a very basic idea of getting into Space.

Rockets are incredibly inefficient because they need huge amounts of power to get off the ground, using up most of their fuel fighting against inertia and atmospheric drag.

Space elevator can eliminate most of those problems. The work done is significantly less as no expulsion mass must be carried to do work against gravity, and lower ascent speeds in the lower atmosphere can virtually eliminate atmospheric drag.

The main problem with space elevators would be unfeasible, because no material exists which could support itself at such a height. Scientists say it might take many years to gain technological advancements to build a cable with such extreme capabilities.

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To maintain the elevator to be stationary with respect to the Earth, the other end in space must reach 35,000 km and the weight at that end should be very heavy. You might ask that, are we taking that insanely heavy mass into the space to put it on the other? Even scientists are working on it. But the visible fact is, if we don’t take that heavy mass into space from earth, then definitely we need to have that in the outer space! Maybe an “Asteroid”!

Keeping all these complications in mind, some scientists suggest that, before building this on earth, they suggest to try building a space elevator on moon. Because the moons gravity is low, this make almost every thing easy. Kevlar can be used as a cable and the weight at the end in the outer space is low compared to the required weight form the earth.

A few companies are actually trying to make Space elevators happen. So, is this possible now? Right now it might not be possible. But maybe a 30-40 years later definitely possible.

Computer! Part-1

As our modern days term goes, a machine that runs certain operations is known as a Computer. In the past before our “Electronic” computers, we had counting devices. Even an abacus or a mechanical calculator is a computer! Yeah, that’s true. Recall the basic requirement of a computer “To perform basic mathematical operations” right!

So what are operated in a computer? Yeah, numbers.. All those counting devices have their own ways of representing numbers.

Now, how do modern days electronic computers take numbers?

Well… Let’s see from the start. The basic way was representing every number using only 0’s and 1’s. We use something called “Boolean algebra” to do so. That’s actually something interesting and maybe you have already done it.

Then, how to use an electronic device to do so?

The basis for this is the voltage( high or low). High represents ‘1’ and low represents ‘0’. Making this basis, we have tried a bunch of devices. The first one was “vacuum tube”, consisted of an anode and a cathode(diode) in a vacuum created tube. Giving a voltage to the cathode release some electrons and are attracted towards the anode( with a higher ‘+’ potential), and by varying the voltage at cathode we get a “high” or “low”( 0 or 1).

Then we had triode, it just had an extra electrode between cathode and anode, which enables the flow of current. Varying the voltage of that extra electrode allows or stops the electrons to flow resulting in a ‘0’ or a ‘1’.

Though they work, those devices have their own disadvantages. Not efficient, bulky and all.

So, to overcome all those disadvantages scientists used “Transistors”. Unlike diodes where they use electrodes, transistor uses something called semiconductor. By using a method called “Doping”, we mix semiconductor with various elements. And create ‘p’type and ‘n’ type. When these n type and p type are arranged alternatively, it forms an npn transistor, with something called p-n junction between p type and n type.

And there is a voltage limit called threshold voltage, the current only passes through the junction, when the voltage is more than threshold voltage. If the voltage is low and the current won’t pass, then that’s a ‘0’ and if the voltage is high and the current passes through, then that’s a ‘1’.

This is how an “Electronic” computer takes in a number. Believe it or not, there might be millions or even more transistors in the electronic device through which YOU are reading this article;)

I want this to be like a big franchise titled “Computer”!!! This is just a beginning part-1, I am left with so much to talk about the machine responsible for making so many things happen, including my blog;)

 

 

“Gravitational Waves” found yet again!

Here’s a quick update…

Last year in september, for the first time ever scientists Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) have observed Gravitational waves. The source of these waves were the product of the collision between two black holes into a giant single black hole occured 1.3 billion light years away

On December 16 2015 LIGO observatory for the second time detected a signal, which now confirmed as Gravitational waves. The scientists at LIGO converted these gravitational waves into sound waves, here’s how they sound!

This yet again proves the Einsteins theory of relativity..
When two dense objects such as neutron stars or black holes orbit each other, space-time is stirred by their motion and gravitational energy ripples throughout the universe.

 Learn more from my previous articles about”Gravitational waves?“, “First ever discovery of gravitational waves“, and “Origin of our universe“!!

 

Hypnosis!!!

Check out the video above to see how hypnosis looks like.. And be prepared to hurt your jaws from laughing!!

Hypnosis has been around us from almost 300 years. Like we see in movies, it’s not brainwashing or magic. Hypnosis is a trance-like state of heightened concentration, we do experience this state when we do something which we enjoy the most…

Hypnosis results in some physical changes, like reduced rates of blinking the eye movements (saccades). Cats are scared of cucumber because they look like snakes, then why are domestic cats scared of cucumber, which haven’t ever seen snakes in their life time? Well.. The reason is, all mammals while they are in the womb experience a dream state called rem state, that is where mammals get their brains programmed. In case of cats they are programmed to be scared of snakes. Now, hypnosis is like altering that program!!

Try identifying the colour in which the words are written below…

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In case of the words written in unknown language, we wont go wrong but, I guess most of you probably “Us” got it wrong in case of the words written in the language we understand! This is called “interference effect” that causes the meaning of the words to take priority over their visual colour. However with the post hypnosis, people were able to do this task effortlessly and even the MRI brain scan revealed that the brain region responsible for language did not become activated..

This explains Hypnosis is real but it’s no magic. Hypnosis is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness, a broad category that includes meditative states.. There is something called self-hypnosis, where in we hypnotise ourselves to get over anxiety during exams, overcoming tensions, building confidence for achieving goals etc…

Here’s how its done Self-Hypnosis… Self-Hypnosis is similar to Zen meditation, this word should be familiar to you if you had read one of my previous posts “Science of becoming batman” where in Batman(fictional character) learned zen meditation to get most effective rest in a less time…

 

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