Antimatter?

For every type of matter particle, there is a corresponding antimatter particle. Antiparticles look and behave just like their corresponding matter particles, except they have opposite charges.

Antimatter particles are created in ultra high-speed collisions. In the first moments after the Big Bang (learn more about it in my previous article Origin of our universe), only energy existed. As the universe cooled and expanded, particles of both matter and antimatter were produced in equal amounts. And the biggest question for which we have no answer yet is, why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe??

For instance, a proton is electrically positive whereas an antiproton is electrically negative and gravity affects matter and antimatter the same way, because gravity is not a charged property and a matter particle has the same mass as its antiparticle

In 1928, British physicist Paul Dirac came up with an equation that combined quantum theory and special relativity ( learn more about it here Special relativity), just a simple one x2=4, this equation can have two possible solutions (x=-2 or x=2), one for an electron with negative energy, and one for an electron with positive energy.

HOW CAN WE USE ANITIMATTER?

The most interesting and even frustrating fact about antimatter is, when matter and antimatter come into contact, they disappear producing energy (annihilate is the technical term for it). This led scientists to think of antimatter-powered spacecraft for more efficient space exploration. Of course that costs billions of dollars though..

Now, the frustrating part is, it is damn tough to contain antimatter because all our equipment is made of matter and as we try to put them in any of those containers, they disappear leaving back some energy. But scientist have managed to contain some antimatter for about 15 minutes, sufficient for scientific study.

So, do you have any clue about having more matter than antimatter?

Wanna know what dark matter is? visit Dark matter.

 

 

What is Gravitational lensing?

Gravitational lensing is extremely helpful in discovering new things in our universe, how? let’s see that in a bit. Gravity itself is fascinating, when a phenomenon occurs where there is something to do with both Gravity and light, that’s something amazing.

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From Einstein’s theory of relativity, we know that mass curves the space around it. This is where the phenomenon called  Gravitational lensing comes into picture. Light gets deflected(or bends) when it travels along the curvature of space and time containing a massive object, this phenomenon is called  Gravitational lensing.

Astronomers use gravitational micro-lensing to detect planets around other stars. The foreground star acts as a lens for a background star. As the star brightens up, you can detect further distortions which indicate there are planets. It help discover new planets. But the thing is, they are very rare events.

It was first observed by Arthur Eddington and Frank Watson Dyson in 1919 during a solar eclipse. The stars close to the Sun appeared slightly out of position, showing that the light from the stars was bent.

Gravitational lensing acts as a magnifying glass for distant objects making them easier to observe.

And the most funny yet helpful thing with gravitational lensing is, we can even observe invisible things in our universe like “Dark matter”. It doesn’t emit or absorb light on its own, we can’t see or observe or contain it. BUT, it has mass and responds to gravitational lensing.

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Here is an example of a gravitational lensing called the Einstein cross. In this image, a single object appears as four objects. A very distant quasar(quasars are distant and extremely bright objects powered by black holes a billion times as massive as our sun) is thought to be positioned behind a massive galaxy.

The gravitational effect of the galaxy has created multiple images through gravitational lensing on the light from the quasar.

So, this is a very special scientific happening which gives us a hope or even a start to play with dark matter;) Of course that’s super tough. Lets see!!

 

“Gravitational Waves” found yet again!

Here’s a quick update…

Last year in september, for the first time ever scientists Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) have observed Gravitational waves. The source of these waves were the product of the collision between two black holes into a giant single black hole occured 1.3 billion light years away

On December 16 2015 LIGO observatory for the second time detected a signal, which now confirmed as Gravitational waves. The scientists at LIGO converted these gravitational waves into sound waves, here’s how they sound!

This yet again proves the Einsteins theory of relativity..
When two dense objects such as neutron stars or black holes orbit each other, space-time is stirred by their motion and gravitational energy ripples throughout the universe.

 Learn more from my previous articles about”Gravitational waves?“, “First ever discovery of gravitational waves“, and “Origin of our universe“!!

 

What is Supernova?

In astronomy, we often hear the word “Supernova”. Let’s see, what actually a Supernova is?

 Supernova is an event where an explosion of a huge star takes place. These blasts produce some heavy material in the universe including some elements, like iron, which make up  planets. Not all stars become Supernova though.

So, there are two types of supernovae.

White Dwarfs

White Dwarfs is something with the size of our earth and with 8 times the mass of our sun. This explains how dense it is. With this high density, it pulls mass from the neighbouring mass, using its gravity. By taking in the mass, it reaches a level called “Chandrasekhar limit”. At this instant, the star becomes unstable and supernova takes place. In turn, it forms something called Neutron star.

Star Fusion

 It occurs when stars core’s fusion process runs out of fuel. They can briefly outshine entire galaxies and radiate more energy than our sun will, in its entire lifetime. Stars are high nuclear reactors producing energy by fusing hydrogen into helium. Running out of fuel is nothing but, running out of hydrogen. With this, the helium is fused into heavier elements and supernova takes place, adding enrich elements to space clouds of dust and gas, further interstellar diversity, and produce a shock wave that compresses clouds of gas to aid new star formation.

Ultimately these supernovae are responsible for Black-holes and Birth of new stars too…

Parallel Universes??

Parallel universes are basically alternate realities, where every possible situation happens. Since there are infinite possibilities, there are infinite number of parallel universes.

Let’s see, what’s a Multiverse?

As the name suggests, a group of Universes makes a Multiverse. The Universe we live in,  might not be the only Universe out there. Our universe might be one in the Infinite number of universes out there.

By theory, we have different types of multiverse theories.

  1. Bubble universes
When we say the word Universe, It actually refers to the observable universe, which we can observe or see. Some part cannot be seen because the light don’t reach us from that part. If we assume a boundary or bubble upto which our universe can be observed, then there are many other bubble around our bubble and each have their own Laws of Physics.
Which explains that, we can only exist in the universe that has our laws.
2. Membranes
The Universe in which we live is 3 dimensional. According to string theory this 3 dimensional space is inside a Super universe with 9 dimensions.
This explains that there are still more 3 dimensional portions in the 9 dimensional super universe.
3. The many worlds
This is the fun theory, this theory predicts that there are many worlds and every possible situation is happened in one or the other worlds. There are different time lines for each. If you know the story of the DC Comics character “The Flash” you will understand this better;)

All these concepts are Theories. There is no experimental evidence. For now, we have the evidence for the Inflation. Learn more about that from my previous article Origin of our Universe. So, as always, ” Everything is true until it’s a theory”.

So, don’t let another you, in another universe, do what you don’t do, in this particular universe. which precisely means don’t make yourself regret;)

 

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