Dark side of the moon!!!

When we look at the moon in the night sky, all the time we only see one side of the moon. We on Earth  never get to see the far side or the dark side of the moon! Ever thought why?

Well… Let’s see why? the Moon makes one revolution around the Earth about every 29 days, and that’s what causes the Moon phases. But the Moon also rotates once every 29 days also. Because of this, the same side of the Moon always faces the Earth. This is because of something called tidal locking.

Tidal force is like, When you are standing up, Gravity acts on you. And your feet are just a little bit closer to the center of the Earth than your head, this means that the Earth pulls with a slightly larger gravitational force on the lower half of you than the upper half. This slight difference is called a tidal force.

When something like a Moon is close enough to a planet, these gravitational tidal forces cause the Moon to spin at the same rate that it revolves around the planet. When this happens, we call it tidal locking, and that’s why we always see the same side of the Moon!

If you want to know, how tides are formed on ocean, read this What really cause tides?Also, do you know that the far side of the moon doesn’t have the dark spots like on the near side of the moon? Find out why on my next article..

 

Antimatter?

For every type of matter particle, there is a corresponding antimatter particle. Antiparticles look and behave just like their corresponding matter particles, except they have opposite charges.

Antimatter particles are created in ultra high-speed collisions. In the first moments after the Big Bang (learn more about it in my previous article Origin of our universe), only energy existed. As the universe cooled and expanded, particles of both matter and antimatter were produced in equal amounts. And the biggest question for which we have no answer yet is, why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe??

For instance, a proton is electrically positive whereas an antiproton is electrically negative and gravity affects matter and antimatter the same way, because gravity is not a charged property and a matter particle has the same mass as its antiparticle

In 1928, British physicist Paul Dirac came up with an equation that combined quantum theory and special relativity ( learn more about it here Special relativity), just a simple one x2=4, this equation can have two possible solutions (x=-2 or x=2), one for an electron with negative energy, and one for an electron with positive energy.

HOW CAN WE USE ANITIMATTER?

The most interesting and even frustrating fact about antimatter is, when matter and antimatter come into contact, they disappear producing energy (annihilate is the technical term for it). This led scientists to think of antimatter-powered spacecraft for more efficient space exploration. Of course that costs billions of dollars though..

Now, the frustrating part is, it is damn tough to contain antimatter because all our equipment is made of matter and as we try to put them in any of those containers, they disappear leaving back some energy. But scientist have managed to contain some antimatter for about 15 minutes, sufficient for scientific study.

So, do you have any clue about having more matter than antimatter?

Wanna know what dark matter is? visit Dark matter.

 

 

What is Gravitational lensing?

Gravitational lensing is extremely helpful in discovering new things in our universe, how? let’s see that in a bit. Gravity itself is fascinating, when a phenomenon occurs where there is something to do with both Gravity and light, that’s something amazing.

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From Einstein’s theory of relativity, we know that mass curves the space around it. This is where the phenomenon called  Gravitational lensing comes into picture. Light gets deflected(or bends) when it travels along the curvature of space and time containing a massive object, this phenomenon is called  Gravitational lensing.

Astronomers use gravitational micro-lensing to detect planets around other stars. The foreground star acts as a lens for a background star. As the star brightens up, you can detect further distortions which indicate there are planets. It help discover new planets. But the thing is, they are very rare events.

It was first observed by Arthur Eddington and Frank Watson Dyson in 1919 during a solar eclipse. The stars close to the Sun appeared slightly out of position, showing that the light from the stars was bent.

Gravitational lensing acts as a magnifying glass for distant objects making them easier to observe.

And the most funny yet helpful thing with gravitational lensing is, we can even observe invisible things in our universe like “Dark matter”. It doesn’t emit or absorb light on its own, we can’t see or observe or contain it. BUT, it has mass and responds to gravitational lensing.

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Here is an example of a gravitational lensing called the Einstein cross. In this image, a single object appears as four objects. A very distant quasar(quasars are distant and extremely bright objects powered by black holes a billion times as massive as our sun) is thought to be positioned behind a massive galaxy.

The gravitational effect of the galaxy has created multiple images through gravitational lensing on the light from the quasar.

So, this is a very special scientific happening which gives us a hope or even a start to play with dark matter;) Of course that’s super tough. Lets see!!

 

Space Elevator! Possible?

The idea of a space elevator has been around for over a century. Using an elevator is a very basic idea of getting into Space.

Rockets are incredibly inefficient because they need huge amounts of power to get off the ground, using up most of their fuel fighting against inertia and atmospheric drag.

Space elevator can eliminate most of those problems. The work done is significantly less as no expulsion mass must be carried to do work against gravity, and lower ascent speeds in the lower atmosphere can virtually eliminate atmospheric drag.

The main problem with space elevators would be unfeasible, because no material exists which could support itself at such a height. Scientists say it might take many years to gain technological advancements to build a cable with such extreme capabilities.

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To maintain the elevator to be stationary with respect to the Earth, the other end in space must reach 35,000 km and the weight at that end should be very heavy. You might ask that, are we taking that insanely heavy mass into the space to put it on the other? Even scientists are working on it. But the visible fact is, if we don’t take that heavy mass into space from earth, then definitely we need to have that in the outer space! Maybe an “Asteroid”!

Keeping all these complications in mind, some scientists suggest that, before building this on earth, they suggest to try building a space elevator on moon. Because the moons gravity is low, this make almost every thing easy. Kevlar can be used as a cable and the weight at the end in the outer space is low compared to the required weight form the earth.

A few companies are actually trying to make Space elevators happen. So, is this possible now? Right now it might not be possible. But maybe a 30-40 years later definitely possible.

What’s your speed right now?

Are you just resting and reading this right now? Even then, you are moving with a great speed! By now you might have guessed what I am gonna talk about “The earths rotation”. Let’s go deep into space…

Let’s start small, as you move from the earths equator to the poles your rotation speed decreases. As the equator is the fastest at 1600kmph! Even with small speeds of cars, we inside the car feel the speed, then at that great speed of earth, we don’t feel a thing! why?

Because, earth is moving at a fixed rate, and we’re all moving along with it, and that’s why we don’t feel Earth’s spin. But in case of a car, the speed isn’t uniform. If Earths spin were suddenly to speed up or slow down, you would definitely feel it.

Let’s get back on track. Earth is travelling around the Sun, the Sun moves around the center of Milky- Way, the Milky-Way moves within the local group of Galaxies, these local groups moves within the Vergo cluster and so on…. As of now that is all we know! And that’s a stupendous speed…

The speed of moon from earth is different from the speed of moon observed from somewhere in the space. This is because the speed is relative. There is nothing called absolute speed. Even rest is relative. But the change in speed is same or absolute.

And again we are on the earth and the earth is “in” the system moving with the same speed as the system. So we don’t feel and thing.

And we are puny little beings in this gigantic universe travelling with a tremendous speed, ” which we don’t feel a thing”;)…

 

Epic moment in science( Discovery of Gravitational Waves)

For so long, scientists were trying hard to find the evidence for Gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein over a 100 years ago, in his “Theory of Relativity”. Finally, scientists at LIGO( Laser Interferometer Gravitational Waves Observatory) detected Gravitational Waves.

Scientists estimate, about 1.3 billion years ago, two black holes  collided at half the speed of light. Which resulted in Gravitational waves. Detector at LIGO detected these waves.

LIGO has two identical detectors, one located in Livingston, Louisiana, the other in Hanford, Washington. These Detectors can detect even very little vibrations from Gravitational Waves.

Learn more about gravitational waves here”Gravitational Waves“. Also about the origin of our universe, cosmic inflation here” Origin of our universe“.

This discovery changes our perspective on how we see the Universe.

Move back and forth in time( TIME DILATION)

Time dilation leads us to time travel!! Sounds great, but kinda weird to explain. Your concept of relative speeds doesn’t work here.

If you and superman are flying with the same speed, then with respect to you, the superman is at rest. This isn’t the case with light, as long as your speed is less than light( though your speed is so close to light), the speed of light doesn’t change with respect to you.

If speed isn’t changing with respect to you, though you are moving, then what is changing? Well… The time is changing. So, this is the key for time travel.

Have you watched the movie “Interstellar”? Yeah you must. When the hero returns to his daughter from another planet probably in other solar system, his daughter becomes more than 90 years old( that is much older than her father). This is time dilation, because of his journey through wormhole.

You could do a flyby of a nearby star and return to Earth at nearly the speed of light, and a few years would pass on Earth while possibly only a few weeks or months would pass for you, depending on how fast you were going and how far away the star was.

Few of my recent articles are related to this one.  RELATIVITY (all about the Einstein’s special and general relativity) and the previous one Stars ( which proves that, even light with such great speed takes “Time” to reach us;)

There is another extension to this article, can you guess one?

 

 

 

 

Parallel Universes??

Parallel universes are basically alternate realities, where every possible situation happens. Since there are infinite possibilities, there are infinite number of parallel universes.

Let’s see, what’s a Multiverse?

As the name suggests, a group of Universes makes a Multiverse. The Universe we live in,  might not be the only Universe out there. Our universe might be one in the Infinite number of universes out there.

By theory, we have different types of multiverse theories.

  1. Bubble universes
When we say the word Universe, It actually refers to the observable universe, which we can observe or see. Some part cannot be seen because the light don’t reach us from that part. If we assume a boundary or bubble upto which our universe can be observed, then there are many other bubble around our bubble and each have their own Laws of Physics.
Which explains that, we can only exist in the universe that has our laws.
2. Membranes
The Universe in which we live is 3 dimensional. According to string theory this 3 dimensional space is inside a Super universe with 9 dimensions.
This explains that there are still more 3 dimensional portions in the 9 dimensional super universe.
3. The many worlds
This is the fun theory, this theory predicts that there are many worlds and every possible situation is happened in one or the other worlds. There are different time lines for each. If you know the story of the DC Comics character “The Flash” you will understand this better;)

All these concepts are Theories. There is no experimental evidence. For now, we have the evidence for the Inflation. Learn more about that from my previous article Origin of our Universe. So, as always, ” Everything is true until it’s a theory”.

So, don’t let another you, in another universe, do what you don’t do, in this particular universe. which precisely means don’t make yourself regret;)

 

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