Space Elevator! Possible?

The idea of a space elevator has been around for over a century. Using an elevator is a very basic idea of getting into Space.

Rockets are incredibly inefficient because they need huge amounts of power to get off the ground, using up most of their fuel fighting against inertia and atmospheric drag.

Space elevator can eliminate most of those problems. The work done is significantly less as no expulsion mass must be carried to do work against gravity, and lower ascent speeds in the lower atmosphere can virtually eliminate atmospheric drag.

The main problem with space elevators would be unfeasible, because no material exists which could support itself at such a height. Scientists say it might take many years to gain technological advancements to build a cable with such extreme capabilities.

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To maintain the elevator to be stationary with respect to the Earth, the other end in space must reach 35,000 km and the weight at that end should be very heavy. You might ask that, are we taking that insanely heavy mass into the space to put it on the other? Even scientists are working on it. But the visible fact is, if we don’t take that heavy mass into space from earth, then definitely we need to have that in the outer space! Maybe an “Asteroid”!

Keeping all these complications in mind, some scientists suggest that, before building this on earth, they suggest to try building a space elevator on moon. Because the moons gravity is low, this make almost every thing easy. Kevlar can be used as a cable and the weight at the end in the outer space is low compared to the required weight form the earth.

A few companies are actually trying to make Space elevators happen. So, is this possible now? Right now it might not be possible. But maybe a 30-40 years later definitely possible.

Computer! Part-1

As our modern days term goes, a machine that runs certain operations is known as a Computer. In the past before our “Electronic” computers, we had counting devices. Even an abacus or a mechanical calculator is a computer! Yeah, that’s true. Recall the basic requirement of a computer “To perform basic mathematical operations” right!

So what are operated in a computer? Yeah, numbers.. All those counting devices have their own ways of representing numbers.

Now, how do modern days electronic computers take numbers?

Well… Let’s see from the start. The basic way was representing every number using only 0’s and 1’s. We use something called “Boolean algebra” to do so. That’s actually something interesting and maybe you have already done it.

Then, how to use an electronic device to do so?

The basis for this is the voltage( high or low). High represents ‘1’ and low represents ‘0’. Making this basis, we have tried a bunch of devices. The first one was “vacuum tube”, consisted of an anode and a cathode(diode) in a vacuum created tube. Giving a voltage to the cathode release some electrons and are attracted towards the anode( with a higher ‘+’ potential), and by varying the voltage at cathode we get a “high” or “low”( 0 or 1).

Then we had triode, it just had an extra electrode between cathode and anode, which enables the flow of current. Varying the voltage of that extra electrode allows or stops the electrons to flow resulting in a ‘0’ or a ‘1’.

Though they work, those devices have their own disadvantages. Not efficient, bulky and all.

So, to overcome all those disadvantages scientists used “Transistors”. Unlike diodes where they use electrodes, transistor uses something called semiconductor. By using a method called “Doping”, we mix semiconductor with various elements. And create ‘p’type and ‘n’ type. When these n type and p type are arranged alternatively, it forms an npn transistor, with something called p-n junction between p type and n type.

And there is a voltage limit called threshold voltage, the current only passes through the junction, when the voltage is more than threshold voltage. If the voltage is low and the current won’t pass, then that’s a ‘0’ and if the voltage is high and the current passes through, then that’s a ‘1’.

This is how an “Electronic” computer takes in a number. Believe it or not, there might be millions or even more transistors in the electronic device through which YOU are reading this article;)

I want this to be like a big franchise titled “Computer”!!! This is just a beginning part-1, I am left with so much to talk about the machine responsible for making so many things happen, including my blog;)

 

 

“Gravitational Waves” found yet again!

Here’s a quick update…

Last year in september, for the first time ever scientists Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) have observed Gravitational waves. The source of these waves were the product of the collision between two black holes into a giant single black hole occured 1.3 billion light years away

On December 16 2015 LIGO observatory for the second time detected a signal, which now confirmed as Gravitational waves. The scientists at LIGO converted these gravitational waves into sound waves, here’s how they sound!

This yet again proves the Einsteins theory of relativity..
When two dense objects such as neutron stars or black holes orbit each other, space-time is stirred by their motion and gravitational energy ripples throughout the universe.

 Learn more from my previous articles about”Gravitational waves?“, “First ever discovery of gravitational waves“, and “Origin of our universe“!!

 

What’s your speed right now?

Are you just resting and reading this right now? Even then, you are moving with a great speed! By now you might have guessed what I am gonna talk about “The earths rotation”. Let’s go deep into space…

Let’s start small, as you move from the earths equator to the poles your rotation speed decreases. As the equator is the fastest at 1600kmph! Even with small speeds of cars, we inside the car feel the speed, then at that great speed of earth, we don’t feel a thing! why?

Because, earth is moving at a fixed rate, and we’re all moving along with it, and that’s why we don’t feel Earth’s spin. But in case of a car, the speed isn’t uniform. If Earths spin were suddenly to speed up or slow down, you would definitely feel it.

Let’s get back on track. Earth is travelling around the Sun, the Sun moves around the center of Milky- Way, the Milky-Way moves within the local group of Galaxies, these local groups moves within the Vergo cluster and so on…. As of now that is all we know! And that’s a stupendous speed…

The speed of moon from earth is different from the speed of moon observed from somewhere in the space. This is because the speed is relative. There is nothing called absolute speed. Even rest is relative. But the change in speed is same or absolute.

And again we are on the earth and the earth is “in” the system moving with the same speed as the system. So we don’t feel and thing.

And we are puny little beings in this gigantic universe travelling with a tremendous speed, ” which we don’t feel a thing”;)…

 

Google Project Ara( An innovative piece’s’ of smart phone)

All the projects that Google is working on, like Project Ara, Project fi, Project Soli, Project wing, Project balloon, Project Tango and many more are super cool.

In my view this year Google I/O 2016 was mostly about AI and VR. Last year I have read about “Google Project Ara” and that really freaked me out. Now let’s see what actually is Project Ara.

Google Project Ara wants to do to hardware what apps did to software.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

By creating a phone that can have each component changed, all the main components are interchangeable via modules that click in and out, attaching via electro permanent magnets.

Google believes it will drive down hardware pricing while allowing users to pick and choose what they want. That’s what Google’s Project Ara a modular smartphone aims to do. No need to buy a new Smartphone due to some damage just change the respective module. At last we can say only one thing that it’s a flexible platform suitable for everyone, everywhere and any time. It allows developers to be able to create modules for its Ara device.

So, let me know what do you think…

Turn your table top into an Android tablet!!


Ever thought of turning your table top into a touch screen? well… This gadget does just that. Lazertouch is a new, small projector that can turn any table top or even a wall into an Android tablet. This gadget showed up in INDIEGOGO. To detect touches, Lazertouch puts out a laser that is parallel with the surface. The projector is portable, and has  13,600mAh battery inside.

This can be used just like any android tablet.. Watch out the video, that looks really good..

 

GLOWING PLANTS!

Ever thought of trees glowing? Maybe now you should.. So, technical name for these type of plants is Bioluminescent plant. The first bioluminescent plant was made in 1986, with the addition of firefly luciferine.

There are a few species like jelly fish, fireflies etc.. On our planet that can glow. To make the glowing plants, the team first uses the Genome Compiler software to identify a plant’s DNA. The software then custom prints the sequence and then inserted into a plant.

The main sequence responsible for making the plant glow is known as luciferase (it can also be found in fireflies). Unlike the previously made Bioluminescent plants, where the plants aren’t so bright,  now scientists have been able to get the gene to recycle itself and make the plant especially bright.

Scientists say that the intensity of the light emitted by these Bioluminescent plants isn’t that high to replace streetlights. Hopefully someday we replace our street lights and table lamps with Bioluminescent plants.

Live forever “Frozen”(Cryonics)!

We have seen so many weird to the weirdest things in science, but I think nothing can be so weird than this. Basically cryogenics is the study of something in cold, but CRYONICS on the other hand is the study of some living thing kept in cold.

Cryonics is actually a process of preserving the human body in an extremely low temperatures, hoping that some day, science could be able to bring them back to life ( Technically called reanimation). “Hoping??” Yeah, this isn’t perfect yet, as of now scientists have only found the way to preserve the human body, but science has yet to improve further to bring the preserved human back to life!

You may ask, why on earth people want to live frozen forever? Well… The people with un-curable diseases hoping that science one day finds a cure or people just curious about future may end up preserving themselves through cryonics.

Now, let’s see what happens here rather how it happens. Once the person is dead, the cryonics team inject some antifreeze to protect the tissues from freezing because. The main problem here is our cells are full of water and when we freeze the body cells may freeze, when liquid freezes they expand so, there is a chance of breaking the cell membrane in this process. Then the body is cooled rapidly and finally kept in a liquid nitrogen container for too long.

It may take a few years or even decades to find a way to reanimate the human body (bringing the human back to life).

Science fiction is no more a fiction!!

 

 

Misconceptions about tides! What really causes tides?

Many people get it wrong about the reason for gravity of moon and sun responsible for tides. Now, let me ask you something, why don’t we see tides in a lake? And why don’t we see sand and rocks levitate, Due to the Gravity of moon and sun?

Let’s see what actually cause tides. When you are in an accelerating bus( technically in an accelerating frame or non-inertial frame), what ever may be the mass of the object, they  experience force while bus turns, in a direction opposite to the turn. This force is similar to the Tidal force experienced by earth.

Here, what ever may be the mass of the object on earth, they should move out of the surface of earth. But that’s not happening here, all the objects aren’t moving out. The tidal force isn’t acting only on the moon-earth line, because if that was the case ( tidal force acting along the moon earth line), we should see the lakes, ponds, rocks, you and me raising, but we aren’t. And the tidal acceleration due to the gravity of moon along the earth moon line is 1/10,000,000th gravity of earth, so it is not possible for this tiny force to lift something on earth. But that tides are real here!!!!

Then, what is really causing tides???

Until now, we only have considered forces on the earth-moon line. Now consider the forces acting on some other points on earth, the resultant of the forces at that point, i.e., the TIDAL force at that point is observed to be radially downward. By mapping the direction of tidal force at various points on earth, it looks something like the image down below. With the image below, it is clear that, this force is not lifting or stretching but getting SQUEEZED.

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From an unknown source on the internet, I have read that this phenomenon is similar to that of squeezing a pimple;);) So true.. This makes it easy to answer my above question “Why do lakes don’t have tides?”. Well… You got it, they are like small pimples, hard to blast:);). They have a smaller surface area and have tiny microscopic tides, which can’t be seen. By the way, the similar is the case with sun. The Sun is very far from earth yet with a huge mass. So,according to the position of the sun, earth and moon the bigger and smaller tides are formed!

Let me know, what you think!

What’s Encryption? And what’s Quantum Cryptography?

Encryption is simply taking some information that makes sense and scrambling it into some mess, so that no one can open it without a specified key. In reality, many websites on the internet contain some of our secret and sensitive information( like credit card info and even messages), to protect these we use Encryption.

So, how do they manage to protect our information?

Well.. The information is first turned into some other sequence or into bits, then we use something called KEY, to protect our information.

This key is like, multiplying every bit of the code with a certain prime number or something else. This makes it difficult to crack. Because, its easy to know the multiplication of two prime numbers. But, its pretty tough to tell the two prime numbers with which the number or the output bit is obtained.

And for encryption, we don’t use small primes, we actually use bigger prime numbers. It may take years to find the factors for that number by a human. But the machine(computer) created by the human is super fast and can find the key faster than you expect, of course that damn tough to do so.

Now, let’s see what “Quantum Cryptography” is?

Encryption is done purely based on mathematics. When it comes to highest level of protection, “Quantum Cryptography” comes into picture. Unlike encryption, Quantum Cryptography uses physics. In Quantum Cryptography, the information is hidden in Photons(light particles).

The key here is  a stream of photons travelling in one direction, with each of these photon particles representing a single bit of data (either a 0 or 1). All of these photons are oscillating (vibrating) in any 360-degree range across any conceivable axis, let the  oscillations be grouped into 4 particular states: UP/DOWN, LEFT/RIGHT, UPLEFT/RIGHTDOWN and UPRIGHT/LEFTDOWN.UPRIGHT/LEFTDOWN. The angle of this vibration is known as the polarization of the photon.

A polarizer is that which simplifies a filter that permits certain photons to pass through it with the same oscillation as before and lets others pass through in a changed state of oscillation.

Now, let’s see how a key is made. Let  “A” sends oscillating photos may be UP/DOWN, LEFT/RIGHT, UPLEFT/RIGHTDOWN and UPRIGHT/LEFTDOWN. The receiver “B” uses two types of polarizers ( Diagonal and Horizontal/vertical) for each photon, to polarize and ends up with an information waiting for a confirmation by the sender “A” about the polarizer “B” used, that is, Diagonal or Horizontal/vertical polarizer.

Because, a Diagonal polarizer won’t polarize a Horizontally polarized photon, that is, there is a 50% chance of 1 and 50% chance of 0. Finally once the sender “A” confirms the polarizer used for each bit, the wrongly guessed combinations are thrown out and the correct key is obtained.

Using Quantum Cryptography as of now is very tough. This was practically practised in IBM lab.