Future of Batteries

Over decades, we have seen a lot of improvements in almost all forms of technologies, one of the most noticeable part, which has no change since so long is “energy storage device” called “battery”. If you look at the technological industry, all developments are being done to use the energy contained in the batteries efficiently. But on the market we didn’t experience any change, when it comes to batteries, only the components that use batteries are made efficient towards energy consumption.

If new technologies rise, which can make energy storage better, then we don’t have to compromise on other components in a device due to batteries. For example the size of the device increase due to batteries, explosions of the batteries  can be avoided if the batteries won’t contain liquid in it(like, we use lithium, which explodes when moisture comes in contact).

Battery is that which stores chemical charge and converts it into electricity. Every battery has a cathode(+), anode(-) and an electrolyte. Cathode wants electrons, anode gives electrons and an electrolyte is that which helps ions to move between anode and cathode. This flow of electrons create electricity. Over the years we have found various ways of creating and storing electricity, like electricity from a lemon, banana etc… Most of those works on the above concept.

▪      A lot of research is being done on this particular topic, but most of those alternatives don’t have sufficient potential to get commercialized. Few alternatives that can be expected on the market soon are:

▪      Graphene  Super-capacitors.

▪      Solid state batteries.

Before getting into Graphene super-Capacitor, let’s see what are super capacitors and  capacitor s are!

Capacitors:

▪      Basically a capacitor charges and discharges quickly. A basic capacitor usually consists of two metal plates, separated by an insulator (like air or a plastic film). During charging, electrons accumulate on one conductor and depart from the other. One side gains a negative charge while the other side builds a positive one. The insulator disturbs the natural pull of the negative charge towards the positive one, and that tension creates an electric field. Once electrons are given a path to the other side, discharge occurs.

Super capacitor:

▪      Supercapacitors also contain two metal plates, two electrodes are coated with a porous material known as activated carbon. They are immersed in an electrolyte made of positive and negative ions dissolved in a solvent. One plate is positive and the other is negative. During charging, ions from the electrolyte accumulate on the surface of each carbon-coated plate. Supercapacitors also store energy in an electric field that is formed between two oppositely charged particles, only they have the electrolyte in which an equal number of positive and negative ions is uniformly dispersed. Thus, during charging, each electrode ends up having two layers of charge coating (electric double-layer).

Graphene supercapacitor:

▪      Graphene is a thin layer of pure carbon, tightly packed and bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. It is widely regarded as a “wonder material” because, it is the thinnest compound known to man at one atom thick, as well as the best known conductor. It also has amazing strength and light absorption traits and is even considered ecologically friendly and sustainable as carbon is widespread in nature and part of the human body.

▪      It is often suggested as a replacement for activated carbon in supercapacitors, in part due to its high relative surface area, which is even more substantial than that of activated carbon. The surface area is one of the limitations of capacitance and a higher surface area means a better electrostatic charge storage. In addition, graphene based supercapacitors will utilize its lightweight nature, elastic properties and mechanical strength.

▪      Graphene  Super-capacitor  has advantages of both Li-ion battery and a capacitor. Fast charging of a capacitor and the slow discharging of a battery can be obtained in a super-capacitor.

Solid state super capacitor:

▪      Almost all the batteries we use have a liquid or a gel in them. Now, when it comes to solid state batteries, the liquid or the gel portion is replaced with a solid. This can avoid battery explosions completely.

▪      The main difference between Li-ion batteries and solid state batteries is that the former uses a liquid electrolytic solution to regulate the flow of current, while solid-state batteries opt for a solid electrolyte. A battery’s electrolyte is a conductive chemical mixture that allows the flow of current between the anode and cathode.

How Solid state super capacitor works?

▪      solid state batteries use redox reactions to store and deliver energy. Oxidation occurs at the anode, reduction occurs at the cathode and the battery is able to use this phenomenon to store energy (charge) and release it (discharge) as necessary. During discharge, ions travel through an ion-conductive solid matrix instead of the ionic salt saturated solvent state of typical liquid electrolytes.

▪      Solid state electrolytes are fast ion conductors solids that allow ions to move freely throughout the solids crystalline matrix. Fast ion conductors are best thought of as a material that lies between crystalline solids that possess a regular structure with fixed ions and structure-less liquid electrolytes with freely flowing ions. Solid electrolytes often come in the form of gels, glasses and crystals with novel internal structures. In solid state batteries, solid electrolytes must meet a combination of high ionic conductivity, low internal resistance and high electronic resistance. The higher the ionic conductivity is the better the power density and the lower the internal resistance of the battery. The better insulating the solid electrolyte is to electrons, the lower the self-discharge rate and the higher the charge retention. Choice of solid electrolyte depends on the chemistry of the battery, and the ions available for conduction. In the case of lithium ion solid state batteries, a solid electrolyte like LiI/Al2O3 is an excellent Li+ conductor.

 

Commercial use:

The concept of solid state batteries are around for so long now, but the technology is still in research grounds.

Many technological industries are working in this new technology. It was old that, samsung is working on this.

There is a company called Sakti3 in Michigan, exclusively working on solid state batteries. A British electronics giant Dyson invested millions of dollars on Sakti3. Not only that, so many other companies also showed interest and invested millions of dollars. This clearly shows how important  this  could become.

 

▪    So, with this I conclude that, very soon we might see a change in the way we treat and use technology interms of energy consumption. The graphene super-capacitors and solid state batteries are not the only ways to  achieve these advantages, there are plenty of technologies under research. In my view these two are the closest to the market.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top-5 tech at CES 2017 (Consumer Electronics Show).

CES is here. My personal favourite… In case you didn’t notice, CES 2017 is the 50th consumer electronics show! Over the years, most of the new technologies and gadgets that rule the rest of the year originates from CES. Of course MWC(Mobile World Congress) and WWDC(World Wide Development congress) awesome too and also plays a major part. For now let’s talk CES, it is held every year in January.

Here’s my favourite tech on CES!

In my view, this year CES was all about VR (Virtual reality), AR (Augmented reality), AI(Artificial intelligence), IOT(Internet of things), TVs, Self driving cars and a lot of smart phones related stuff! Most of the gadgets introduced in CES 2017 falls in one of these categories.

  1. The displays are really crazy this year. LG OLED W-Series  is my personal favourite maxresdefault-1-35

Just look at it! It is so thin that, it just sticks to the wall like a poster… Well, the speaker for the TV are separate.

All the other displays are mind blowing too… The TV by Samsung, Sony, Amazon etc…

2. The processors, the Qualcomm’s all new Snapdragon 835 processor was introduced. Intel’s new Lake 7th generation intel core processor.

3. The smart bed called “Sleep Number 360”, this was actually cool. This intelligent bed does so much…

Look at it for your self…

4. Obviously a bunch of new laptops and smartphones. Blackberry’s new smart phone “BlackBerry mercury”, this has an amazing built. Asus’s new AR smart phone, this comes with snapdragon 821, Google’s tango technology and the first phone to come with 8 GB RAM.

5. Razer’s Project Ariana is an extension of the gaming company’s Chroma lighting setup. Rather than just brightening up a keyboard, this 4K projector expands your game outside of a monitor. It’s pretty trippy, and unlike Microsoft’s similar IllumiRoom concept, Ariana will hopefully be a shipping product by year’s end. The Razor’s Roccat mouse and also the 3 monitors containing laptop…

razer-project-valerie-gaming-laptop

These are just a few awesome tech in CES 2017. There are hundreds of more gadgets and futuristic ideas out there, I cant cover all those in one single article. Go ahead check out CES 2017 right away..

And here is my another blog http://informaticcoolstuff.in/ . Please do visit this blog too!

Let me know your favourite thing in CES 2017…

Happy new year!

It’s been so long since I wrote anything. But, I am back now. I will try to post regularly from now on. As today is the first day of this new year 2017, I would like to put all my favourite articles I wrote in the last year. Of course, I like all those I wrote. But what I mean was, all the articles that might interest you are put at one place.

Here we go…

  1. Parallel universe
  2. How we see in 3d
  3. Mass of trees come from
  4. Internet of things
  5. Gravitational waves
  6. Flying windmills
  7. What is supernova?
  8. Flash science
  9. Gravity lights
  10. Move back and forth in time
  11. Stars really twinkle?
  12. General and special relativity
  13. Does cell phones cause tumor
  14. Self cleaning nano tech
  15. One year of my blog!
  16. Spherical tires
  17. Encryption
  18. What really cause tides
  19. Cryonics
  20. Where does wind come from?
  21. Science of becoming batman
  22. What’s your speed right now?
  23. Hypnosis!
  24. Computer part-1
  25. Space elevator
  26. Science of muscle building
  27. Deep web and dark web
  28. Computer part-2; Choosing processors!
  29. Gravitational lensing
  30. Iris scan vs retina scan!
  31. Antimatter!
  32. RFID tags
  33. My new self hosted blog
  34. working of Solar panels.
  35. What is e-paper and how it works?

Wow, I am actually very happy that most of the article I wrote this year made it to this list. Now, I have 323 wonderful followers on my blog with 180 articles Usually for any special days like making 100 followers or  200 followers or having done one year in blogging or anything that has to do with blogging, I list out all my favourite articles at one place.

So, here are all those posts I did on those “special days”…

50 wp followers!

100th article with 100 followers!!

One year of blogging!!!

My new selfhosted blog!!!!

Here is the link to my selfhosted-blog ” informaticcoolstuff.in“. Please do visit and support as you guys always did!

what is E-Paper? How it works?

E-Paper or Electronic Paper Display is pretty much similar to an ordinary paper. Then why E-Paper??

There are a lot of advantages with E-Paper, when we compare with ordinary paper ink, it can be electrically refreshed and written upon millions of times.

E-Ink takes advantage of interactions between computer processors and charged black and white particles. Unlike traditional displays like LCDs, LEDs etc… These E-Papers have an advantage of more readability, are flexible and these use very low power .

To get all these advantages together there are a few compromised features like low touch screen capability and less responsive than comparable LCD screen devices. E-Paper manufacturing companies are working to overcome these disadvantages..

The Electronic Paper technology is very futuristic and has a high potential in reducing the usage of paper indirectly saving the environment by not using thousands of trees for the manufacture of paper. E-Paper only use a limited power and can store thousands of books in a single portable device. This means you almost have a whole library in your hand.

After knowing all these interesting and amazingly useful advantages, you must be curious to know about the working of this E-paper right!

Firstly, There are two popular companies manufacturing E-Paper “Electronic inks” – E Ink and “Xerox”.

The e-ink looks very similar to normal ink but it has millions of tiny microcapsules also known as cavities, and are filled by an ink substance. There are pigmented chips or balls there balls are actually the colours that are displayed on the screen. Let’s say white and black. These ball are with a negative charge floating inside the microcapsule.  The ink would cover the entire page and the page is made out of some kind of ultra-thin plastic separated by cells that resemble the cells on graph paper.

einkmikrokapsle

These cells are like pixels on a computer screen and each and every cell is wired to the micro level electronics embedded in the page made of ultra thin plastic. Using the basic concept, positive attracts negative or unlike poles attract, these microelectronics would then be used to apply a positive or negative charge to the microcapsules to create the desired text or images. For example, let, all the black balls are negative and all white balls are positive, then when a positive charge is given then, as per the instruction the black balls appear on the screen accomplishing specified task of presenting an image or a number etc…

Likewise, when an electrical charge is applied to the microcapsules, the chips will either rise to the top or be pulled to the bottom. When pushed to the top, the chips make the capsules look white; when they are pulled to the bottom, the viewer only sees the dark ink. Patterns of white and dark can then be created to form words and sentences.

Even more colours other than white and black are also coming to E-paper. There are plenty of gadgets which take the advantage of E-paper like Yotaphone 2, Pebble smart watches, Amazon kindle and also there are many stores which use e-paper to display product prices and other information instead of LCD and LED screens…

This has a lot of scope for development in the coming years! Let me know what you think!

Solar Panel! How does it work?

“Energy”, one of the most important necessities worldwide. There are a lot of ways to generate energy, creating energy through sun is termed as “Solar energy”. To generate energy from sun we use solar cells, solar modules and solar panels, and what are all these different terms? Well… Solar cells are often bundled together to make larger units called solar modules, and solar modules coupled into even bigger units known as solar panels. When the sun light falls on a solar cell, electric energy is generated!

pv-system-schematics-residential-eng

Firstly solar panels harness solar energy from the sun in individual solar cells. The energy is then transferred to an inverter which converts it to electricity, suitable for use in your home.

A semiconductor material such as silicon absorbs particles of light when the sun shines on the photovoltaic cells (PV cells) within solar panels. Particles of electricity (electrons) which are negatively charged, begin to flow through the solar cells in a single direction, which means that a current is created. The solar panels are constructed from a series of interconnected cells.

Is it that simple? Well.. Actually a lot is happening inside the solar panel, that is what we are gonna see now.

Solar cell is made of? Solar cell is a sandwich of two different layers of silicon. Why silicon?? To know why, first we need to understand a few terms. Conductors: These conductors conduct electricity.. Insulators: Other materials, such as plastics, wood etc… Don’t really conduct electricity at all.. Those materials are called insulators. Now Semiconductors like silicon are neither conductors nor insulators, they only conduct electricity under certain circumstances. Those are the circumstances we are interested in, now.

This silicon is actually specially doped, That is the “circumstance” we need to let electricity flow through them in a particular way. The lower layer is doped such that it has very few electrons. It’s called p-type or positive-type silicon, Why positive? Because electrons are negatively charged and this layer has too few of them. The upper layer is doped in the opposite way to give it slightly too many electrons. It’s called n-type or negative type silicon.

Now, if  light (made of photos) falls on the solar panel, that is on the silicon cell with a sufficient amount of energy to knock out the electron from its bond. A hole is formed. And as the electron is negatively charged, the electron goes to the n-side and the hole goes to the p-side. These freely moving electrons are collected, through which an external circuit is powered…

The power generated through these solar panels is DC (Direct current). Our homes run on AC, not on DC power. The inverter changes DC to AC or alternating current.

Each silicon cell can generate only half a watt of power, which is very less.. But when, these solar cells are combined to form a solar module, the power generated is high. It is even higher in the case of a solar panel. And there is nothing wasted in a solar cell except the never ending energy emitted by the sun, so these solar panels can sustain for decades.

There is a lot of “clean” and infinite energy coming from the sun, if we could be able to make use of it, there won’t be any energy crisis anytime soon.

My new self-hosted blog!

FINALLY! I have started a new self hosted blog at http://informaticcoolstuff.in . So, please do read content on my new blog also.

Creating a new one doesn’t mean that I neglect this blog, this blog will be continuing as it is right now. The only thing that changes is, I also write on my new blog. Which means more content to read!! And there are not so many articles in it. You might be wondering what am I going to write on that blog! Well… I will be writing article on DIYs, science and technology, gadgets and all…

Please do support as you did all this time and also suggest me with some bunch of productive advices…

Thanks for reading!

RFID! Is that the future of barcodes?

These days we see barcodes everywhere. Almost every product has a unique barcode, which contains all the information about the product. 1D barcodes can only hold a maximum of 85 characters and 2d  Barcodes can store over 7,000 characters. With 2D barcodes even complex information like expiration dates and serial numbers can be seen easily.

Before we get into RFID, let’s see how does a barcode and a barcode scanners work? 

If you look at a barcode, you can’t just make a wild guess on where one number ends and another one begins. Each digit in the product number is given the same amount of horizontal space: exactly 7 units. Then, to represent any of the numbers from zero to nine, we simply color those seven units with a different pattern of black and white stripes. So, in order to denote each number, there is a certain combination of white and black for each number from 0-9. The combination for each number is shown in the image below.

barcodestripes

So, how the scanner knows to read these? When light reflects back off barcode into a light-detecting electronic component called a photoelectric cell. White areas of the barcode reflect most light; black areas reflect least. The cell generates a pattern of on-off pulses that correspond to the black and white stripes.

RFID(Radio frequency identification): 

In barcodes, scanner could only scan one barcode at a time, but in RFID, a bunch of tags can be scanned at a time even from longer distances (up to 100 meters in some cases). RFID tags can be used in many places hotels, aeroplains, railways etc… With this technology in operation, you can just walk out of the grocery store with your products through the RFID scanner and without even waiting in a long billing line, get your total bill and payment done.

How RFID works?

A RFID has a tag or label and a reader. Tags are embedded with a transmitter and a receiver. The RFID component on the tags consists of a microchip that stores and processes information, and an antenna to receive and transmit a signal. The tag contains the specific serial number for one specific object.

To read the information encoded on a tag, a two-way radio transmitter-receiver called an interrogator or reader, emits a signal to the tag using an antenna. The tag responds with the information written in its memory bank. The interrogator will then transmit the information.

A passive RFID tag will use the interrogator’s radio wave energy to relay its stored information back to the interrogator.

A batter powered RFID tag is embedded with a small battery that powers the relay of information.

So, definetely it might be the future of barcodes…

Fun fact-  If a smartphone is inside an aluminum foil, covered with aluminum foil, it can’t be detected by any RFID scanner even your phone can’t recieve any calls.

 

 

What is Gravitational lensing?

Gravitational lensing is extremely helpful in discovering new things in our universe, how? let’s see that in a bit. Gravity itself is fascinating, when a phenomenon occurs where there is something to do with both Gravity and light, that’s something amazing.

4a4a7

From Einstein’s theory of relativity, we know that mass curves the space around it. This is where the phenomenon called  Gravitational lensing comes into picture. Light gets deflected(or bends) when it travels along the curvature of space and time containing a massive object, this phenomenon is called  Gravitational lensing.

Astronomers use gravitational micro-lensing to detect planets around other stars. The foreground star acts as a lens for a background star. As the star brightens up, you can detect further distortions which indicate there are planets. It help discover new planets. But the thing is, they are very rare events.

It was first observed by Arthur Eddington and Frank Watson Dyson in 1919 during a solar eclipse. The stars close to the Sun appeared slightly out of position, showing that the light from the stars was bent.

Gravitational lensing acts as a magnifying glass for distant objects making them easier to observe.

And the most funny yet helpful thing with gravitational lensing is, we can even observe invisible things in our universe like “Dark matter”. It doesn’t emit or absorb light on its own, we can’t see or observe or contain it. BUT, it has mass and responds to gravitational lensing.

1365d306851b0849c6684e06700a3afc

Here is an example of a gravitational lensing called the Einstein cross. In this image, a single object appears as four objects. A very distant quasar(quasars are distant and extremely bright objects powered by black holes a billion times as massive as our sun) is thought to be positioned behind a massive galaxy.

The gravitational effect of the galaxy has created multiple images through gravitational lensing on the light from the quasar.

So, this is a very special scientific happening which gives us a hope or even a start to play with dark matter;) Of course that’s super tough. Lets see!!

 

Deep web and dark web??

Did you access your email or facebook or twitter or used drop-box today? If you did any one of those, then you accessed the deep web. The deep web isn’t some mysterious place, it’s just a collection of users private data. It’s hidden because we don’t want anyone to access our private information through facebook or twitter or data on dropbox.

It was estimated that the deep web is about 95% of all the data available online!!

The dark web is similar to the deep web in the respect that it is hidden from the normal web. However the dark web is not information that is not linked, rather it is purposely hidden. To access the dark web you need to use special tools like Tor or Freenet. These are the only ways to get to this hidden content. Though the deep web makes up 95% of all the internet the dark web only consist of about .03%. But that small section has millions of monthly users. The dark web is usually what people actually mean when they refer to the deep web.

 Deep web and Dark web aren’t same. The deep web is on the internet that has the stuff on the internet that can’t be accessed by our traditional search engines like Google. “Dark Web” on the other hand is a term used to describe areas on the internet accessible only through some softwares like TOR. It is the encrypted network that exists between TOR  servers and their clients. As the dark web is pretty much hidden, it is also used for some illegal things. But i have read that the dark web was created by US Navy for transmitting secured information.

What do you think?

Image- Deep-web

 

BLOGGER RECOGNITION AWARD

Thank you so much Sahana from “Jazz lily” for nominating me for this Blogger Recognition award. She is a very talented writer. And her blog is really good. Go ahead and check out her blog.   Jazz lily

Here are the rules for this award…

Rules:

(1) write a post to show your Award

(2) Acknowledge the Blogger that nominated you

(3) Give a brief story about how you get started blogging

(4) Give two pieces of Advice for new bloggers

(5)  Nominate the deserving 15 bloggers

So, here is how it all started. The idea of creating something like a website, which should contain all the stuff related to Science and Technology, was on my mind for so long. Before I started this blog, I don’t know where to start, I literally searched every possible source. In this search, I learnt so much about SEO(search engine optimisation) and stuff, with GREAT struggle, I actually created a free self-hosted website which shows adverticements more than my articles.

And I realised that building a self-hosted website actually need skills which comes through experience. Finally I thought of creating some blog, where I don’t need to worry about anything but content. That is how I came across WordPress.

And my blog’s Title!!

Well… I wanted my blog to be useful, whoever reads it, should be able to understand and finally I wanted it to be cool;)

Advice for new bloggers:

I am not so experienced or famous here. But I have spent more than a year here. So, here are two tips from what i have learned.

  1. Don’t write trending topics only to get readers, write what’s on your mind.
  2. Read and review other blogs…
  3. One extra suggestion for YOU!! People suggest to tag and categorize but they won’t tell how many tags are to be given.. The fact is wordpress do not put your article on to the followed tags portal( where people search and read article on wordpress) if you tags count is more than 15. The same is with the categories…

Finally here’s the tough part of any award post.. NOMINATIONS!!! I have nominated a few of my favorite blogs. Some of he blogs in this list,,, I visit them once in a while just to read the new articles if any.. Many bloggers are fed up with the awards and stopped doing award posts. No problem, do write if interested… But I am so glad for this nomination. Again, thank you so much Sahana for nominating me.

NOMINATIONS:

Sickphysics

Mathsbyagirl

Iridescence

Smiling all the way to heaven

Scientificlove

Gaurish4math

Entropy of consciousness

Richard

t3chagent

Weijie

Keithgarrettpoetry

Wanderingviolet

Arpita

Breezing Whims

Laika

Life event observation

LosiLosLoco

Himali

Science and rationality

Jessie

Never stop exploring

Mithai

Muskanreadsandwrites