Machines that never stop!! Perpetual motion machines?

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Ever heard of a machine which never stops! Well… Technically it’s called Perpetual motion machine. Even if we manage to create one and set it going, it would keep on going until the Big Freeze. Big Freeze is theoretically the end of everything. It’s not set to happen for another 100 trillion years or so.  If that’s a perpetual motion, then it should run for atleast that time!!! Now, you know what to say when someone says, they have built a perpetual motion machine!!

But let’s see the origin story of these perpetual motion machines. The most common of these, and the oldest, is the overbalanced wheel. In a typical version, flexible arms are attached to the outer rim of a vertically mounted wheel. An inclined trough is arranged to transfer rolling weights from folded arms on one side of the wheel to fully extended arms on the other. The implicit assumption is that the weights exert more downward force at the ends of extended arms than is required to raise them on the other side, where they are kept closer to the axis of rotation by the folding of the arms.

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One of many perpetual motion machines are continuous motion that would supposedly be possible if hindrances like mechanical friction and electrical resistivity could be eliminated. But these are not those science problems where they give “IDEAL” objects.

Some part of those forces can be minimized but they can never be completely eliminated without spending additional energy. For instance superconductive metals, whose electrical resistance disappears completely at low temperature. Unfortunately, the energy required to maintain the low temperature exceeds the work that results from the superconductive flow.

There are a lot of machines like these, though there aren’t perfect perpetual motion machines, yet they are super cool to look at them. Some of them are:

Self-winding clock:  It dirives energy from changes in the temperature or pressure of the atmosphere. It depends upon the energy delivered to the Earth by the Sun and is not, therefore, a perpetual-motion machine.

Perpetual energy generator: Of course they don’t completely fulfill our requirement, yet that’s a very good idea..

 

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With water:

 52d42698952d20a7ce2b10c784ca64d4_machine_1316_866Boyle'sSelfFlowingFlask

Magnetic perpetual motion machines: They are a bunch of these around. Using and playing with the attraction and repulsion properties of magnets makes it even cooler..

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I have a question for you, I have come across this image on the internet;);)… My question is, does it work? And if yes, how?

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With all this, we can conclude that, for now actual perpetual motion machines can’t be build… And please do answer the question above;);)

 

Antimatter?

For every type of matter particle, there is a corresponding antimatter particle. Antiparticles look and behave just like their corresponding matter particles, except they have opposite charges.

Antimatter particles are created in ultra high-speed collisions. In the first moments after the Big Bang (learn more about it in my previous article Origin of our universe), only energy existed. As the universe cooled and expanded, particles of both matter and antimatter were produced in equal amounts. And the biggest question for which we have no answer yet is, why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe??

For instance, a proton is electrically positive whereas an antiproton is electrically negative and gravity affects matter and antimatter the same way, because gravity is not a charged property and a matter particle has the same mass as its antiparticle

In 1928, British physicist Paul Dirac came up with an equation that combined quantum theory and special relativity ( learn more about it here Special relativity), just a simple one x2=4, this equation can have two possible solutions (x=-2 or x=2), one for an electron with negative energy, and one for an electron with positive energy.

HOW CAN WE USE ANITIMATTER?

The most interesting and even frustrating fact about antimatter is, when matter and antimatter come into contact, they disappear producing energy (annihilate is the technical term for it). This led scientists to think of antimatter-powered spacecraft for more efficient space exploration. Of course that costs billions of dollars though..

Now, the frustrating part is, it is damn tough to contain antimatter because all our equipment is made of matter and as we try to put them in any of those containers, they disappear leaving back some energy. But scientist have managed to contain some antimatter for about 15 minutes, sufficient for scientific study.

So, do you have any clue about having more matter than antimatter?

Wanna know what dark matter is? visit Dark matter.

 

 

Computer Part-2. Processors!! What does i3,i5,i7 mean?

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Part-1 (Computer part-1) of computer was all about, how a computer takes in info.. In this part-2 of computer let’s see what a processor does and how to choose a processor!! This is still an arguable and ground breaking issue …

processor is commonly referred to as the CPU. It can process computer instructions per second measured in hertz. So, it is important to check the clock speed… Like 2 GHz, 2.5 GHz etc..

When it comes to processors, it might be of any company Intel or AMD, the specifications we need to look at, are the same. Few important specs are: number of cores,  32 bit or 64 bit, Cache.. Let’s see each of them,

 

Number of cores (multi-core) 

We are so much familiar with the words single core, dual core, quad core etc.. Dual core has two single cores and quad core has four single cores. In simple words a single core is like one calculator, a dual core has two calculators.

This does’n mean that a 2 GHz dual core is equal to a 4 GHz single core in performance. All this means is that you have two 2 GHz cores working for you instead of one. This is so important to understand the difference, most people confuse here in selecting.

As it goes above, dual core has two calculators and single core has one calculator, if we give an instruction, suppose a mathematical calculation, we can use only one calculator at a time. Having two calculators or having dual core doesn’t make our job any faster in this case. Same is the case with dual core.. Then what is the use in getting dual core or even quad core?? It is so simple answer, when we give multiple instructions or in this case two mathematical calculations. Then each mathematical calculation uses one calculator, with this the two tasks will be completed in very less time..

So, number of cores is equal to number of calculators.. In order to make use of all the cores present there is something called “multi-threading.” A program that’s multi-threaded – written for more than one core – can take advantage of a multi-core processor, even for only one operation by dividing  it among the cores. Multi-cores benefit isn’t necessarily one of speed, but one of smoothness.

It’s so important to know that the extra cores may go to waste. More than that, more cores means more power draw and with that more heat. In a notebook, these become serious considerations.

32 bit or 64 bit? How to choose?

 

Every  hardware component in a laptop requires what’s called an “address” and it is normally be occupied by memory. Your computer knows everything in it by its address, and everything uses memory addresses. So if you only have 4 GB worth of addresses, all the other parts are going to start eating into that, leaving part of the 4 GB of physical memory you have untouched. This is why when you put 4 GB of memory into a Windows XP or Windows Vista 32-bit machine, Windows doesn’t give you the full 4 GB – it may give you as little as 2.5 GB or as much as 3.5 GB, depending on the hardware you have in your machine.

What a 64-bit processor and 64-bit operating system does is dramatically raise the amount of memory your computer can address. By increasing this limit, it allows the computer to see the full 4 GB and still have room for everything else. Still, the move to 64-bit, provided you’re running at least 4 GB of memory can generally be beneficial.

Cache:

 

Cache is basically a memory, or RAM, that’s been built into the processor. if cache is so much faster than memory (and it is), why bother with memory at all? Why not just integrate all that memory into the processor itself? Because memory is physically huge. Sure, it’s not that big when you look at a processor or a stick of memory, but on a typical processor, the L2 cache takes up roughly half the die. So if as little as 4MB of cache takes up that much space, try to fathom how much space 1GB would need.

So, don’t worry much about Cache

Now, let’s see Intel’s i3, i5, i7 processors!!

As long as you understand the above specifications and what each specification does, you are good to go…

First of all,these terms correspond to processors from the specific brand of Intel.

Before you make a purchase though, you should really think about what you are going to do with you computer.  If you are just using your computer to email, surf the web etc…You will be just as fine with a Core i3.

If you are editing multiple files in Adobe Flash, with virtualization software, playing the newest RPG computer game you may notice the Core i5 to be much more faster. The Core i5 is great.

The Core i7 are the current most expensive and top of the line from the Core series of Intel processors. For most computer users, the i7 is probably much more than they’ll actually need or even think they need.  But, if you want the best of the best that will run your video rendering programs, giant RPG games, and many other higher technical programs, go for i7.

There are still lot more to talk about computer which we would do in the next part!!:)

Light bulbs! History and science…

Now, let’s see the history and science behind “light bulbs”!

The first ever electric light was invented by a chemist Humphry Davy, called “arc lamp” named for the bright arc of light emitted between its two carbon rods.. Later on, incandescent light bulbs with a carbon rod in a nitrogen filled glass cylinder were invented by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans. They sold their patent rights to Thomas Edison in 1879.

The first practical and more efficient incandescent light bulbs were invented by Edison. Edison and his team discovered a carbonized bamboo filament that could burn for more than 1,200 hours. Bamboo was used for the filaments in Edison’s bulbs and later on tungsten was used.

After that we had neon bulbs, fluorescent lamps, LEDs and so on..

History is done! let’s talk science…

When a light bulb is connected to an electric power supply, an electric current flows from one metal contact to the other. As the current travels through the wires and the filament, the filament heats up to the point where it begins to emit photons, which are small packets of visible light.

Fluorescent lamps
They work by ionizing mercury vapor in a glass tube. This causes electrons in the gas to emit photons at UV frequencies. The UV light is converted into standard visible light using a phosphor coating on the inside of the tube. The white coating we see on a tube light is actually the white phosphor coating from the inside.. 
LEDs
The basic thing a semiconductor does is, it allows current to pass through it only one way. Semiconductor has two layers, first layer has exited electrons in it and the other has holes with more kinda relaxed state. When electrons are passed through first layer and enter the second layer, the electrons release some energy as light. As the name suggests light emitting diode.
The invention of light bulb is one of the significant revolutionary inventions of all time.
INFORMATIC COOL STUFF!

Science of Muscle building!

“Muscles”, there are three types of them Cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscles. Building muscles usually refered to building skeletal muscles

While you use your muscle to lift something, your muscle experience some tiny tears in the muscle fibers. This is the first step of muscle growth. So, tiny tearing of muscle fibers is good in this context. When muscle breaks, something called cytokins are released. These repair the muscle, that’s the time when the muscle grows.

But the correct amount of tension is required for a muscle to undergo tiny tears, which with the help of protein leads to muscle growth. That’s the reason why body building experts suggest to increase tension in the muscle gradually. In other words, gradually increase the weights you lift.

On the other hand, people who do calisthenics or body weight workouts, must know how to increase tension by incorporating compound movements where ever possible. Calisthenic exercises mostly have compound movements, which is good and absolutely helps build muscle. Personally I feel body weight workouts are the best. Because there is a lesser scope of getting injured, it has compound movements and the “burn” we feel after an intense body weight session is amazing.

The “burn” you feel after an intense workout is simply an infusion of lactic acid in the muscle, which is produced as a muscle burns its energy stores. The pump you feel when training is a result of blood being “trapped” in the muscles.

If a workout causes too many micro-tears, then the body will fail to fully repair the muscles, and muscle growth will be stunted. If a workout causes optimal micro-tearing but the body isn’t supplied with sufficient nutrition or rest, no appreciable amount of muscle growth will occur.

Building is all about exercising with correct tension, sufficient amount of rest and good food! And to take every nutrient correctly, for proteins sources, read more about the protein sources here Top 5 vegetarian protein sources.

Took that cool muscle GIF from Google😉

 

 

Space Elevator! Possible?

The idea of a space elevator has been around for over a century. Using an elevator is a very basic idea of getting into Space.

Rockets are incredibly inefficient because they need huge amounts of power to get off the ground, using up most of their fuel fighting against inertia and atmospheric drag.

Space elevator can eliminate most of those problems. The work done is significantly less as no expulsion mass must be carried to do work against gravity, and lower ascent speeds in the lower atmosphere can virtually eliminate atmospheric drag.

The main problem with space elevators would be unfeasible, because no material exists which could support itself at such a height. Scientists say it might take many years to gain technological advancements to build a cable with such extreme capabilities.

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To maintain the elevator to be stationary with respect to the Earth, the other end in space must reach 35,000 km and the weight at that end should be very heavy. You might ask that, are we taking that insanely heavy mass into the space to put it on the other? Even scientists are working on it. But the visible fact is, if we don’t take that heavy mass into space from earth, then definitely we need to have that in the outer space! Maybe an “Asteroid”!

Keeping all these complications in mind, some scientists suggest that, before building this on earth, they suggest to try building a space elevator on moon. Because the moons gravity is low, this make almost every thing easy. Kevlar can be used as a cable and the weight at the end in the outer space is low compared to the required weight form the earth.

A few companies are actually trying to make Space elevators happen. So, is this possible now? Right now it might not be possible. But maybe a 30-40 years later definitely possible.

“Gravitational Waves” found yet again!

Here’s a quick update…

Last year in september, for the first time ever scientists Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) have observed Gravitational waves. The source of these waves were the product of the collision between two black holes into a giant single black hole occured 1.3 billion light years away

On December 16 2015 LIGO observatory for the second time detected a signal, which now confirmed as Gravitational waves. The scientists at LIGO converted these gravitational waves into sound waves, here’s how they sound!

This yet again proves the Einsteins theory of relativity..
When two dense objects such as neutron stars or black holes orbit each other, space-time is stirred by their motion and gravitational energy ripples throughout the universe.

 Learn more from my previous articles about”Gravitational waves?“, “First ever discovery of gravitational waves“, and “Origin of our universe“!!

 

Google Project Ara( An innovative piece’s’ of smart phone)

All the projects that Google is working on, like Project Ara, Project fi, Project Soli, Project wing, Project balloon, Project Tango and many more are super cool.

In my view this year Google I/O 2016 was mostly about AI and VR. Last year I have read about “Google Project Ara” and that really freaked me out. Now let’s see what actually is Project Ara.

Google Project Ara wants to do to hardware what apps did to software.

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

By creating a phone that can have each component changed, all the main components are interchangeable via modules that click in and out, attaching via electro permanent magnets.

Google believes it will drive down hardware pricing while allowing users to pick and choose what they want. That’s what Google’s Project Ara a modular smartphone aims to do. No need to buy a new Smartphone due to some damage just change the respective module. At last we can say only one thing that it’s a flexible platform suitable for everyone, everywhere and any time. It allows developers to be able to create modules for its Ara device.

So, let me know what do you think…

GLOWING PLANTS!

Ever thought of trees glowing? Maybe now you should.. So, technical name for these type of plants is Bioluminescent plant. The first bioluminescent plant was made in 1986, with the addition of firefly luciferine.

There are a few species like jelly fish, fireflies etc.. On our planet that can glow. To make the glowing plants, the team first uses the Genome Compiler software to identify a plant’s DNA. The software then custom prints the sequence and then inserted into a plant.

The main sequence responsible for making the plant glow is known as luciferase (it can also be found in fireflies). Unlike the previously made Bioluminescent plants, where the plants aren’t so bright,  now scientists have been able to get the gene to recycle itself and make the plant especially bright.

Scientists say that the intensity of the light emitted by these Bioluminescent plants isn’t that high to replace streetlights. Hopefully someday we replace our street lights and table lamps with Bioluminescent plants.

Live forever “Frozen”(Cryonics)!

We have seen so many weird to the weirdest things in science, but I think nothing can be so weird than this. Basically cryogenics is the study of something in cold, but CRYONICS on the other hand is the study of some living thing kept in cold.

Cryonics is actually a process of preserving the human body in an extremely low temperatures, hoping that some day, science could be able to bring them back to life ( Technically called reanimation). “Hoping??” Yeah, this isn’t perfect yet, as of now scientists have only found the way to preserve the human body, but science has yet to improve further to bring the preserved human back to life!

You may ask, why on earth people want to live frozen forever? Well… The people with un-curable diseases hoping that science one day finds a cure or people just curious about future may end up preserving themselves through cryonics.

Now, let’s see what happens here rather how it happens. Once the person is dead, the cryonics team inject some antifreeze to protect the tissues from freezing because. The main problem here is our cells are full of water and when we freeze the body cells may freeze, when liquid freezes they expand so, there is a chance of breaking the cell membrane in this process. Then the body is cooled rapidly and finally kept in a liquid nitrogen container for too long.

It may take a few years or even decades to find a way to reanimate the human body (bringing the human back to life).

Science fiction is no more a fiction!!

 

 

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