What’s a DSLR? And how to use it?

Before getting into the usage of a DSLR, let’s see what actually DSLR is and what it does?

In a DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) image you see bounces up to the viewfinder. It passes through a focusing screen and a condenser lens, and then reflects off of a prism’s walls to reach your eye. This allows you to see exactly what the lens sees through the viewfinder. Have a look at the image below.

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The main differences between a point shoot camera and a DSLR are , the DSLR will have much better photo quality and response, an ability to change lenses like telephoto lenses, wide-angles, fisheyes and many more.
Well… Now a days we even get to try these lenses as an attachment to our mobile phones too;). I have recently bought these lenses and these work amazing.

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How to use a DSLR?

I know it’s actually more dumb to write about the usage of an instrument than to read..;) So here’s the video on how to use a DSLR..

The main basic and main functions of a DSLR on which it works are ISO, SHUTTER and APERTURE.

->”Shutter” speed is responsible for motion blur. This is often seen in many pictures of moving objects where the background goes blur.

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->”ISO” is responsible for the sensitivity.

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->”Aperture” is responsible for the depth of the field.

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All these three functions are interrelated. Now let’s see all these functions on a DSLR.

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Thanks for reading… So, let me know if this was useful.

 

 

Computers more like a human “BRAIN”??

Our brain is very intelligent, efficient and accurate. The artificial intelligence deals all about making computers more like humans. Since so long we were been successful in replacing humans with computers and now with the artificial intelligence we stepped ahead trying to make computers more efficient, even letting computers make decisions more like a human.. So let’s see few of the most basic concepts on which the artificial intelligence runs…

 NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY LOGIC

Neural Networks:

Since ages we had been trying to make computers more like a human brain. And the neural networks are inspired by a human brain. There are billions of neurons in a human brain and they communicate with electrical impulses so called synapsis. These electrical impulses are responsible for our brain to think. So, in a very similar way, scientists have developed a theory called neural networks. Neural networks make use of several principles like Gradient- based training, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms. Neural networks are extensively used in the field of artificial intelligence.

Fuzzy logic

Till date the computers were very precise and their approach was true or false that is 0 or 1. On the other hand a Fuzzy logic deals with the “degree of truth”. For an instance consider a car with automatic breaking system, in case of a traditional logic the breaks of the car can be ON or OFF, though that intense break is required or not. But in case of a Fuzzy logic the intensity can be adjusted as required. Briefly in traditional logic only 1 or 0 values are applied and in a fuzzy logic any values between 1 and 0 are applied.

WORKING OF A NEURAL NETWORK

neural-network

There are some nodes (artificial neurons) inter linked with each other similar to the neurons which create electrical signals in a human brain to communicate. A neuron takes an input and gives out an output. When plenty of nodes are inter linked, so they are separated as input node, hidden nodes and output nodes. The connection strength between nodes is represented with Connection weights. If two particular nodes( say A and B connect to C ) are given two values then the information is transferred to the C from either A or B depending on their connection weights between them. This process continues throughout the hidden nodes and an output is given.

HOW FUZZY LOGIC WORKS?

Fuzzy logic helps to make decisions more like a human. It counts plenty of aspects to make a decision. To do this fuzzy logic uses two things fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules. These helps to make decisions more accurately( more like a human)… Watch out the video below for a better understanding..

Also check out my article on Quantum Computing.

This one I wrote it for an unaccomplished task of a paper presentation. So, I thought this would be cool sharing this interesting topic… And I am working on, to create a YouTube channel.. So what do you think of it? Will that be great sharing this “Informatic cool stuff” through a video??

 

Electricity by applying pressure (PEIZOELECTRICITY)

We extensively use electrical energy, probably we can’t live without it in this modern age. So, where do we get electrical energy from? Well, we got two ways Renewable energy sources( which are unlimited like solar energy), Non renewable energy sources( which are limited). Now the “Piezoelectricity” is something like Renewable energy.

What is Piezoelectricity?

There are certain materials called Piezoelectric material, which on applying mechanical stress produce electricity. Precisely apply pressure, boom you got electric energy.

How it manages to give Electric energy?

The animation down below explains everything.

Animation showing how piezoelectric charges appear when you press a crystal.

Animation source

Let us start analysing what our little animation is trying to explain. The Piezoelectric material is composed of equal number of electrons and protons so, the charges cancel out giving no net zero charge. As we apply pressure on this type of materials, the charges get out of balance and they end up giving some voltage at it ends.

This looks very simple yet very useful if used in a more specific and productive areas. And you can surely try this at home. Here’s the picture of piezo electric material (small one), go ahead connect it to an LED and start applying pressure on it and see what happens…

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We can also make our own piezo electric material at home… Let me tell you how. Take Baking soda ( Sodium carbonate), Cream of tartar (Potassium Bitartrate). Mix 7:1 Cream of tartar to Water in a cup you should get a white solution, now put the cup in a pan with water and heat until it’s just simmering, now add half tea spoon of baking soda, it get bubbling keep stirring and adding baking soda until the solution becomes clear( transparent). Leave it overnight in a cool place. After an overnight stand you will get some crystals, something like this..

piezo-crystals

Try connecting these crystals ends to a multi meter, apply pressure to the crystal and test for some voltage…

so, let me know what do you think…

6 DEGREES OF SEPARATION!! YOU ARE CONNECTED TO ANYONE ON THIS PLANET WITH JUST 6 LINKS…

Well… This is exciting, any two strangers on our planet are connected with just 6 links. It’s a small world. Yeah, we are all connected to each other. Even some great Scientists, Genius Entrepreneurs, Noble Laureates, Politicians, Celebrities etc… Are connected and can be reached within 6 links. This theory was first proposed in 1929 by the Hungarian writer Frigyes Karinthy in a short story called “Chains.”

six-degrees

In the 1950’s, Ithiel de Sola Pool (MIT) and Manfred Kochen (IBM) set out to prove the theory mathematically. Although they were able to phrase the question (given a set N of people, what is the probability that each member of N is connected to another member via k_1, k_2, k_3…k_n links?), after twenty years they were still unable to solve the problem to their own satisfaction. In 1967, American sociologist Stanley Milgram devised a new way to test the theory, which he called “the small-world problem.” He randomly selected people in the mid-West to send packages to a stranger located in Massachusetts. The senders knew the recipient’s name, occupation, and general location. They were instructed to send the package to a person they knew on a first-name basis who they thought was most likely, out of all their friends, to know the target personally. That person would do the same, and so on, until the package was personally delivered to its target recipient.

Although it was expected that, it would take at least hundred intermediaries but it only took between five and seven intermediaries to get each package delivered. Milgram’s findings were published in Psychology Today and inspired the phrase “six degrees of separation.”

In 2001, Duncan Watts, a professor at Columbia University, conducted an experiment on the internet through e-mail. Watts used an e-mail message as the “package” that needed to be delivered, and surprisingly, after reviewing the data collected by 48,000 senders and 19 targets (in 157 countries), Watts found that the average number of intermediaries was indeed, six.

We humans are kind of pebbles connected to each other randomly. Which means if we try to lift one pebble, all the pebble are moved. The fast growing technology made this even easier.

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The first ever social networking site was “Six degrees of separation”. And now we have many social networking sites and we are connecting even faster. Some scientists predict that the 6 degree is reduced to 4 degree due to the fast building connections through plenty of social networking sites.

Light Pollution?

We often here about air, water and land pollution, but we rarely here about light pollution.

So, what’s light pollution?

All the artificial light that humanity creates comes under light pollution. The artificial might be of any source like burning fuels at refineries, street lights, head lights etc… As we now know, what actually is light pollution, lets talk about the harmful effect that they cause. The light pollution creates a great problem to the Astronomers, causes a great harm to the ecological balance.

Light pollution Astrophotography Urban Astronomy

In a place called Bries Canyon if there are no lights at all, we will be able to see 75000 starts, but if we put up one street light the number of starts that can be seen reduces to 2500 stars. This clearly explains how complicated light pollution is, to the astronomers for space exploration. Same is the situation for migration of birds and ecological imbalance occurs due to light pollution.

We loose sight of many Super Novas happening. We need a telescope to see them because of light pollution. We are missing many Universal happenings and phenomenon.

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All this doesn’t mean that we should stop using artificial lighting. We need to change the design of our light sources, so that they don’t hit the night sky. For example, we all use our cars headlights at night times. We don’t put on our high beams upward because of the fact that the other person in front of you cannot see. We should make our night lights in a similar way, then we will be able to control light pollution.