Teleportation is nothing but converting matter into data, transport that data to a desired position and reassemble it. The very first teleportation was done back in 1998. A photon was teleported one meter. This whole teleportation thing works on the principle of Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle ( it tells that we can know speed or position of an object but not both) ,  with this we developed a theory called “QUANTUM ENTAGLEMENT”, learn more about it here Quantum entanglement. This principle tells that any two entangled particles are connected where ever they are in the universe. So, to teleport a photon we need two entangled photons.

  1. Photon A: The photon to be teleported
  2. Photon B: The transporting photon
  3. Photon C: The photon that is entangled with photon B

By entangling photons B and C, researchers can extract some information about photon A, and the remaining information would pass on to B by way of entanglement, and then on to photon C. When researchers apply the information from photon A to photon C, they create an exact replica of photon A. However, photon A no longer exists as it did before the information was sent to photon C.

Well… Till date we were teleporting only photons, but in a human body there are 10^28 atoms.. According to the researchers a human body consists of 3.02*10^32 gigabytes, which might take like forever to teleport, by the way what’s your internet speed? ;);).

There is another problem!!!!

Here comes a clash between the science and philosophy because to teleport matter, matter needs to be converted into data which indirectly means to destroy it first. At this time we were successful in teleporting photon and a few atoms like Cs and Rb. But What if in near future we find a way to teleport actual molecules, even organic molecules, in turn teleporting a real human. To teleport first we indirectly destroy the initial object right, only then the object is converted to data and teleported with all the exact same features and memories as the initial object, then what happens to the soul we all believe in, and the teleported human is actually dead??

Let me know your thoughts… It feels great to be back..


what’s a leap second?

The time it takes for earth to rotate around the sun actually isn’t consistent, it differs few fractions of seconds. This is the reason why we add leap seconds once in a while. Recently on june 30th 2015 we added a new second.

Time keeping!!

So, we created the time. We can’t actually sense time with our senses. Learn more about the nature of time right here Nature of time. So, Before we talk about time keeping which is so long indeed, let’s quickly see

Since ages we humans are trying to make time more and more accurate. So let’s get to the history, in 3500BCE Egyptians started measuring time using sun. By placing a tall stick or something, which casts shadow in a particular place according to the suns position. But this isn’t accurate because this doesn’t work on a cloudy day and this changes the durations according to the season change.

So, to overcome this problem “Mechanical clocks” were built. As the time is calculated based on a relative change, these clocks also work on the same principle “Measuring time using a repeated process”. The first in that kind were Water clocks, which measure time according to the volume of water dropped at a constant rate in a marked container. And these mechanical clocks became sophisticated and we started using notched wheels for the constant movement but there was a problem in regulating the speed of the wheel. Now here come the concept of Pendulum. Galileo in 1600 studied the motion of a pendulum, which states that no matter what the mass of the pendulum is, it makes back and forth motion rate constant depending on the length of the pendulum. And this concept was used to build a pendulum clock.

These pendulum clocks were great, but these clocks were a problem to the sailors who often were on the moving ships. To solve this problem John Harrison invented a pocket clock which works on a spring mechanism.

After a long gap, in 1960 Quartz clocks were invented. Quartz crystal is a Peizo electric material, which gives out electricity by applying pressure and vice versa. Learn more about working of Quartz watches on my previous post How a Quartz watch works?. It changes only 15 seconds per month which is pretty much accurate than the precious clocks.

But we need still more accuracy, we depend on time more and more these days, for example the stock market.

For still more accuracy we invented Atomic clocks. Previously a second =1/32,000,000 of an year according to the rotation of the Earth. Scientists felt that, even this is not accurate, the rotation of the earth in its orbit also varies every year due to many factors like moon.

So, to get the most accurate time, the second was defined based on the INTRINSIC property of CESIUM. In these atomic clocks the Cesium is used to tune the waves to a specific frequency. Which has 9,192,631,770 Hz frequency when ever the clock hits that number it counts one SECOND..

For still more accuracy scientists invented Optical clocks which will not show even a second difference for 13 billion years!!!

So let me know your feed back…

“QUARTZ WATCH” How does it work?

The Quartz watches are the most extensively used watches because of their most accurate Timekeeping.

The watch uses a tiny piece of quartz crystal which is the main ingredient of sand “silicon-dioxide” , Quartz crystals are piezoelectric, which means that they generate an electrical charge when mechanical pressure is applied to them. They also vibrate if an electrical charge is applied to them. The frequency of this vibration is a function of the cut and shape of the crystal. Quartz crystals can be cut at a consistent size and shape to vibrate at thousands of times per second(around 32,000Hz), making them extremely stable resonators for keeping very accurate time.

If you have read my previous posts, you might be knowing what exactly “Piezoelectricity” is. If you missed it here’s the link Piezoelectricity.

This is how Quartz looks in a watch.

That quartz crystal serves as the oscillator. The battery sends electricity to the quartz crystal through an electronic circuit.  The circuit counts the vibrations and generates regular electric pulses of one per second. Now the motor comes into picture, the electric pulses when reaches the motor, the motor turns the seconds hand and the clock works,

Higher accuracy devices generally use a material with even higher frequencies (again the frequency must be as stable as possible). Atomic clocks count the oscillations between the nucleus and the electrons in an atom (typically cesium) which oscillate at around 9 billion Hz.


“CASIO” Smartwatch history

As we know, these days many companies are extremely interested about making wearable tech. The giant company so called “CASIO” joined the battle of smart watches long ago. Casio is showing off its rich history of unusual wristwatches. It’s a pretty amazing collection, with features you never knew existed in digital timepieces. And while many of these can be seen in a new light given the recent rise to prominence of smartwatches, Casio isn’t trying to claim that it was there first.

The Epic moments of CASIO by Verge.

  • The GMW-15, from 1989, had a graphic display to show moon phases and sunrise/sunset times.
  • Here’s a touchscreen watch from 1991, the VDB-1000. It included features like a phone book, organiser, calculator, and notepad.
  • Fitness tracking is one of the most important features in smartwatches today, but Casio’s JC-11 could monitor calories, steps, and distance back in 1991.
  • The BP-400, also released in 1991, was another fitness-focused watch that could monitor blood pressure and heart rate. This model was intended to be more stylish and discreet.
  • Some of Casio’s watches, like the RPS-100W from 1993, were less concerned with subtlety. But if you’d be okay with putting the words “FAT BURNING” on a bright pink watch on your wrist, this could have been for you.
  • 1993’s CPW-100 used a compass to help Muslim wearers face Mecca for daily prayers.
  • Of all the watches Casio is showing off, this one blew my mind the most. The VivCel VCL-100 had an antenna that detected when your phone was ringing, and would vibrate on your wrist as an alert. In 1994.
  • Honestly, one of the most useful things I do with the Apple Watch is use it as an Apple TV remote. These Casio models, however, used infrared to control TVs and VCRs back in 1993.
  • The “thermo-scanner” TSX-1300, from 1994, was able to calculate the surface temperature of an object by detecting its infrared radiation.
  • This UV-700 from 1994 has a UV sensor and skin type meter designed to help you be safe in the sun.
  • This is the ABK-55 from 1995. It’s an analog watch with a raised transparent LCD that shows digital information like phone numbers.
  • These two watches from 1994 and 1995 could play simple multiplayer games over an infrared connection.
  • Here’s one area where Casio has Apple and most Android Wear watches beat — built-in GPS. The PRT-1GP came out in 1999, and was the first watch to come with its own GPS functionality.
  • This DBC-V50 from 1999 has a built-in voice recorder, something I actually really wish my Apple Watch could do.
  • 1999’s HBX-100 had an infrared PC link function to transfer data to and from the watch.
  • The WMP-1 came out in the year 2000, and Casio says it was the world’s first wrist-mounted MP3 player.
  • The WQV series is a trilogy of amazing firsts. 2000’s WQV-1 was the first watch with a digital camera; 2001’s WQV-3 was the first to include a color camera; and the same year saw the WQV-10, which added a color screen.
  • A decade before Apple Pay, 2004’s GWS-900 G-Shock came with a contactless IC chip to make payments via Speedpass. The system was introduced by Mobil in the ‘90s as an easy way to pay for gas at filling stations, and restaurants including McDonalds also experimented with it.
  • 2006’s MGC-10 was developed in collaboration with professional magician Tomohiro Maeda, and includes some close-up magic routines — you can “guess” the number or card someone is thinking of, for example.
  • And here’s where it all started. Casio’s first digital watch, the original Casiotron from 1974.
  • Today, Casio is focused on more traditional watches like this titanium Oceanus model. Although the Oceanus line has been discontinued outside Japan, within Casio’s home country some models in the range sell for up to ¥250,000 (over $2,000) new.