what is E-Paper? How it works?

E-Paper or Electronic Paper Display is pretty much similar to an ordinary paper. Then why E-Paper??

There are a lot of advantages with E-Paper, when we compare with ordinary paper ink, it can be electrically refreshed and written upon millions of times.

E-Ink takes advantage of interactions between computer processors and charged black and white particles. Unlike traditional displays like LCDs, LEDs etc… These E-Papers have an advantage of more readability, are flexible and these use very low power .

To get all these advantages together there are a few compromised features like low touch screen capability and less responsive than comparable LCD screen devices. E-Paper manufacturing companies are working to overcome these disadvantages..

The Electronic Paper technology is very futuristic and has a high potential in reducing the usage of paper indirectly saving the environment by not using thousands of trees for the manufacture of paper. E-Paper only use a limited power and can store thousands of books in a single portable device. This means you almost have a whole library in your hand.

After knowing all these interesting and amazingly useful advantages, you must be curious to know about the working of this E-paper right!

Firstly, There are two popular companies manufacturing E-Paper “Electronic inks” – E Ink and “Xerox”.

The e-ink looks very similar to normal ink but it has millions of tiny microcapsules also known as cavities, and are filled by an ink substance. There are pigmented chips or balls there balls are actually the colours that are displayed on the screen. Let’s say white and black. These ball are with a negative charge floating inside the microcapsule.  The ink would cover the entire page and the page is made out of some kind of ultra-thin plastic separated by cells that resemble the cells on graph paper.

einkmikrokapsle

These cells are like pixels on a computer screen and each and every cell is wired to the micro level electronics embedded in the page made of ultra thin plastic. Using the basic concept, positive attracts negative or unlike poles attract, these microelectronics would then be used to apply a positive or negative charge to the microcapsules to create the desired text or images. For example, let, all the black balls are negative and all white balls are positive, then when a positive charge is given then, as per the instruction the black balls appear on the screen accomplishing specified task of presenting an image or a number etc…

Likewise, when an electrical charge is applied to the microcapsules, the chips will either rise to the top or be pulled to the bottom. When pushed to the top, the chips make the capsules look white; when they are pulled to the bottom, the viewer only sees the dark ink. Patterns of white and dark can then be created to form words and sentences.

Even more colours other than white and black are also coming to E-paper. There are plenty of gadgets which take the advantage of E-paper like Yotaphone 2, Pebble smart watches, Amazon kindle and also there are many stores which use e-paper to display product prices and other information instead of LCD and LED screens…

This has a lot of scope for development in the coming years! Let me know what you think!

My new self-hosted blog!

FINALLY! I have started a new self hosted blog at http://informaticcoolstuff.in . So, please do read content on my new blog also.

Creating a new one doesn’t mean that I neglect this blog, this blog will be continuing as it is right now. The only thing that changes is, I also write on my new blog. Which means more content to read!! And there are not so many articles in it. You might be wondering what am I going to write on that blog! Well… I will be writing article on DIYs, science and technology, gadgets and all…

Please do support as you did all this time and also suggest me with some bunch of productive advices…

Thanks for reading!

Antimatter?

For every type of matter particle, there is a corresponding antimatter particle. Antiparticles look and behave just like their corresponding matter particles, except they have opposite charges.

Antimatter particles are created in ultra high-speed collisions. In the first moments after the Big Bang (learn more about it in my previous article Origin of our universe), only energy existed. As the universe cooled and expanded, particles of both matter and antimatter were produced in equal amounts. And the biggest question for which we have no answer yet is, why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe??

For instance, a proton is electrically positive whereas an antiproton is electrically negative and gravity affects matter and antimatter the same way, because gravity is not a charged property and a matter particle has the same mass as its antiparticle

In 1928, British physicist Paul Dirac came up with an equation that combined quantum theory and special relativity ( learn more about it here Special relativity), just a simple one x2=4, this equation can have two possible solutions (x=-2 or x=2), one for an electron with negative energy, and one for an electron with positive energy.

HOW CAN WE USE ANITIMATTER?

The most interesting and even frustrating fact about antimatter is, when matter and antimatter come into contact, they disappear producing energy (annihilate is the technical term for it). This led scientists to think of antimatter-powered spacecraft for more efficient space exploration. Of course that costs billions of dollars though..

Now, the frustrating part is, it is damn tough to contain antimatter because all our equipment is made of matter and as we try to put them in any of those containers, they disappear leaving back some energy. But scientist have managed to contain some antimatter for about 15 minutes, sufficient for scientific study.

So, do you have any clue about having more matter than antimatter?

Wanna know what dark matter is? visit Dark matter.

 

 

What is “BIG” data?

Before we get into “Big data”, let’s see what actually data is. Data is a value assigned to a thing. For example, assume a chocolate. For a chocolate to be unique, there are a few specifications(data) like colour, cost, type, small candy or a big chocolate. Each specification above is a data, but individual data is purely meaningless by itself.

When all those data is combined, we get meaningful “information”. This is something brief about Data. Now, let’s see what Big data is.

Previously only companies used to enter data into the computers, but now with the internet, even users (we) POST or enter huge data, it is estimated that we produce 2 quintillion (which means 1 followed by 18 zeros) bytes of data every day.

How?? For example through facebook or twitter or for that matter any social networking  website the data is given, when we signup or enter our data or post photos or even tweet makes it a data. This is kinda huge data, from just companies entering data to users entering data. Now, we even have machines entering data on a daily basis, like entering the weather information, traffic info, even satellites etc… This huge amount of data is called BIG DATA.

Big data is very useful in various fields, for example, if all the traffic data is accurately taken and processed everyday and everywhere or atleast for a confined place, then it is easy to build a self driving car with all the “traffic” awareness;) Even useful for INTERNET OF THINGS(Internet of things ) This is just a flick on how big data can be used.

Processing is nothing but getting information from the data right! So, how do we process that huge millions of bytes of data?

Well, in those old days, we used to give the data to the computers to process. But now with the tremendous amount of data, we are bringing multiple processors to the data. If you have ever seen server rooms containing data, each server contains processor to process the data.

Quick thought: Some tasks that humans find easy are still difficult for computers;)

Image from Google…

Deep web and dark web??

Did you access your email or facebook or twitter or used drop-box today? If you did any one of those, then you accessed the deep web. The deep web isn’t some mysterious place, it’s just a collection of users private data. It’s hidden because we don’t want anyone to access our private information through facebook or twitter or data on dropbox.

It was estimated that the deep web is about 95% of all the data available online!!

The dark web is similar to the deep web in the respect that it is hidden from the normal web. However the dark web is not information that is not linked, rather it is purposely hidden. To access the dark web you need to use special tools like Tor or Freenet. These are the only ways to get to this hidden content. Though the deep web makes up 95% of all the internet the dark web only consist of about .03%. But that small section has millions of monthly users. The dark web is usually what people actually mean when they refer to the deep web.

 Deep web and Dark web aren’t same. The deep web is on the internet that has the stuff on the internet that can’t be accessed by our traditional search engines like Google. “Dark Web” on the other hand is a term used to describe areas on the internet accessible only through some softwares like TOR. It is the encrypted network that exists between TOR  servers and their clients. As the dark web is pretty much hidden, it is also used for some illegal things. But i have read that the dark web was created by US Navy for transmitting secured information.

What do you think?

Image- Deep-web

 

Boomerang!

Boomerangs have been around for thousands of years now. Traditionally, returning boomerangs are lightweight, made of wood, and consist of two separate wings which meet at an angle at the joining.

All boomerangs aren’t made to come back! Some are made just to hit the target. Now let’s see, how a coming back boomerangs work?

The top and bottom portions of a boomerang are made in an aerodynamic shape or an airfoil shape. Top one is Leading edge and the bottom one is trailing edge.  When boomerang is thrown and the air passes through this shape, it results in a lift as shown below.

airfoil_incorrect

When you throw a boomerang, there are two speeds to be considered, one in the forward direction and the other is rotating speed. This makes it fly and rotate at the same time. As the boomerang spins through the air, the wing at the top of the spin is moving through the air at a faster rate than the wing at the bottom. This makes the top portion generate more lift than the bottom portion as it cuts through the air.

brng

Because the top portion of the boomerang is moving faster than the bottom portion, some torque is generated, which makes the boomerang tilt the plane of rotation slightly such that, the boomerang ends up flying in a curved path through the air. This makes the boomerang come back. It’s not easy to catch the boomerang back. It depends on the angle and force with which you throw with..

 

 

All those images are from Google!

 

Space Elevator! Possible?

The idea of a space elevator has been around for over a century. Using an elevator is a very basic idea of getting into Space.

Rockets are incredibly inefficient because they need huge amounts of power to get off the ground, using up most of their fuel fighting against inertia and atmospheric drag.

Space elevator can eliminate most of those problems. The work done is significantly less as no expulsion mass must be carried to do work against gravity, and lower ascent speeds in the lower atmosphere can virtually eliminate atmospheric drag.

The main problem with space elevators would be unfeasible, because no material exists which could support itself at such a height. Scientists say it might take many years to gain technological advancements to build a cable with such extreme capabilities.

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To maintain the elevator to be stationary with respect to the Earth, the other end in space must reach 35,000 km and the weight at that end should be very heavy. You might ask that, are we taking that insanely heavy mass into the space to put it on the other? Even scientists are working on it. But the visible fact is, if we don’t take that heavy mass into space from earth, then definitely we need to have that in the outer space! Maybe an “Asteroid”!

Keeping all these complications in mind, some scientists suggest that, before building this on earth, they suggest to try building a space elevator on moon. Because the moons gravity is low, this make almost every thing easy. Kevlar can be used as a cable and the weight at the end in the outer space is low compared to the required weight form the earth.

A few companies are actually trying to make Space elevators happen. So, is this possible now? Right now it might not be possible. But maybe a 30-40 years later definitely possible.

“Gravitational Waves” found yet again!

Here’s a quick update…

Last year in september, for the first time ever scientists Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) have observed Gravitational waves. The source of these waves were the product of the collision between two black holes into a giant single black hole occured 1.3 billion light years away

On December 16 2015 LIGO observatory for the second time detected a signal, which now confirmed as Gravitational waves. The scientists at LIGO converted these gravitational waves into sound waves, here’s how they sound!

This yet again proves the Einsteins theory of relativity..
When two dense objects such as neutron stars or black holes orbit each other, space-time is stirred by their motion and gravitational energy ripples throughout the universe.

 Learn more from my previous articles about”Gravitational waves?“, “First ever discovery of gravitational waves“, and “Origin of our universe“!!

 

Hypnosis!!!

Check out the video above to see how hypnosis looks like.. And be prepared to hurt your jaws from laughing!!

Hypnosis has been around us from almost 300 years. Like we see in movies, it’s not brainwashing or magic. Hypnosis is a trance-like state of heightened concentration, we do experience this state when we do something which we enjoy the most…

Hypnosis results in some physical changes, like reduced rates of blinking the eye movements (saccades). Cats are scared of cucumber because they look like snakes, then why are domestic cats scared of cucumber, which haven’t ever seen snakes in their life time? Well.. The reason is, all mammals while they are in the womb experience a dream state called rem state, that is where mammals get their brains programmed. In case of cats they are programmed to be scared of snakes. Now, hypnosis is like altering that program!!

Try identifying the colour in which the words are written below…

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In case of the words written in unknown language, we wont go wrong but, I guess most of you probably “Us” got it wrong in case of the words written in the language we understand! This is called “interference effect” that causes the meaning of the words to take priority over their visual colour. However with the post hypnosis, people were able to do this task effortlessly and even the MRI brain scan revealed that the brain region responsible for language did not become activated..

This explains Hypnosis is real but it’s no magic. Hypnosis is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness, a broad category that includes meditative states.. There is something called self-hypnosis, where in we hypnotise ourselves to get over anxiety during exams, overcoming tensions, building confidence for achieving goals etc…

Here’s how its done Self-Hypnosis… Self-Hypnosis is similar to Zen meditation, this word should be familiar to you if you had read one of my previous posts “Science of becoming batman” where in Batman(fictional character) learned zen meditation to get most effective rest in a less time…

 

Google Project Ara( An innovative piece’s’ of smart phone)

All the projects that Google is working on, like Project Ara, Project fi, Project Soli, Project wing, Project balloon, Project Tango and many more are super cool.

In my view this year Google I/O 2016 was mostly about AI and VR. Last year I have read about “Google Project Ara” and that really freaked me out. Now let’s see what actually is Project Ara.

Google Project Ara wants to do to hardware what apps did to software.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

By creating a phone that can have each component changed, all the main components are interchangeable via modules that click in and out, attaching via electro permanent magnets.

Google believes it will drive down hardware pricing while allowing users to pick and choose what they want. That’s what Google’s Project Ara a modular smartphone aims to do. No need to buy a new Smartphone due to some damage just change the respective module. At last we can say only one thing that it’s a flexible platform suitable for everyone, everywhere and any time. It allows developers to be able to create modules for its Ara device.

So, let me know what do you think…