Happy new year!

It’s been so long since I wrote anything. But, I am back now. I will try to post regularly from now on. As today is the first day of this new year 2017, I would like to put all my favourite articles I wrote in the last year. Of course, I like all those I wrote. But what I mean was, all the articles that might interest you are put at one place.

Here we go…

  1. Parallel universe
  2. How we see in 3d
  3. Mass of trees come from
  4. Internet of things
  5. Gravitational waves
  6. Flying windmills
  7. What is supernova?
  8. Flash science
  9. Gravity lights
  10. Move back and forth in time
  11. Stars really twinkle?
  12. General and special relativity
  13. Does cell phones cause tumor
  14. Self cleaning nano tech
  15. One year of my blog!
  16. Spherical tires
  17. Encryption
  18. What really cause tides
  19. Cryonics
  20. Where does wind come from?
  21. Science of becoming batman
  22. What’s your speed right now?
  23. Hypnosis!
  24. Computer part-1
  25. Space elevator
  26. Science of muscle building
  27. Deep web and dark web
  28. Computer part-2; Choosing processors!
  29. Gravitational lensing
  30. Iris scan vs retina scan!
  31. Antimatter!
  32. RFID tags
  33. My new self hosted blog
  34. working of Solar panels.
  35. What is e-paper and how it works?

Wow, I am actually very happy that most of the article I wrote this year made it to this list. Now, I have 323 wonderful followers on my blog with 180 articles Usually for any special days like making 100 followers or  200 followers or having done one year in blogging or anything that has to do with blogging, I list out all my favourite articles at one place.

So, here are all those posts I did on those “special days”…

50 wp followers!

100th article with 100 followers!!

One year of blogging!!!

My new selfhosted blog!!!!

Here is the link to my selfhosted-blog ” informaticcoolstuff.in“. Please do visit and support as you guys always did!

Solar Panel! How does it work?

“Energy”, one of the most important necessities worldwide. There are a lot of ways to generate energy, creating energy through sun is termed as “Solar energy”. To generate energy from sun we use solar cells, solar modules and solar panels, and what are all these different terms? Well… Solar cells are often bundled together to make larger units called solar modules, and solar modules coupled into even bigger units known as solar panels. When the sun light falls on a solar cell, electric energy is generated!

pv-system-schematics-residential-eng

Firstly solar panels harness solar energy from the sun in individual solar cells. The energy is then transferred to an inverter which converts it to electricity, suitable for use in your home.

A semiconductor material such as silicon absorbs particles of light when the sun shines on the photovoltaic cells (PV cells) within solar panels. Particles of electricity (electrons) which are negatively charged, begin to flow through the solar cells in a single direction, which means that a current is created. The solar panels are constructed from a series of interconnected cells.

Is it that simple? Well.. Actually a lot is happening inside the solar panel, that is what we are gonna see now.

Solar cell is made of? Solar cell is a sandwich of two different layers of silicon. Why silicon?? To know why, first we need to understand a few terms. Conductors: These conductors conduct electricity.. Insulators: Other materials, such as plastics, wood etc… Don’t really conduct electricity at all.. Those materials are called insulators. Now Semiconductors like silicon are neither conductors nor insulators, they only conduct electricity under certain circumstances. Those are the circumstances we are interested in, now.

This silicon is actually specially doped, That is the “circumstance” we need to let electricity flow through them in a particular way. The lower layer is doped such that it has very few electrons. It’s called p-type or positive-type silicon, Why positive? Because electrons are negatively charged and this layer has too few of them. The upper layer is doped in the opposite way to give it slightly too many electrons. It’s called n-type or negative type silicon.

Now, if  light (made of photos) falls on the solar panel, that is on the silicon cell with a sufficient amount of energy to knock out the electron from its bond. A hole is formed. And as the electron is negatively charged, the electron goes to the n-side and the hole goes to the p-side. These freely moving electrons are collected, through which an external circuit is powered…

The power generated through these solar panels is DC (Direct current). Our homes run on AC, not on DC power. The inverter changes DC to AC or alternating current.

Each silicon cell can generate only half a watt of power, which is very less.. But when, these solar cells are combined to form a solar module, the power generated is high. It is even higher in the case of a solar panel. And there is nothing wasted in a solar cell except the never ending energy emitted by the sun, so these solar panels can sustain for decades.

There is a lot of “clean” and infinite energy coming from the sun, if we could be able to make use of it, there won’t be any energy crisis anytime soon.

Dark side of the moon!!!

When we look at the moon in the night sky, all the time we only see one side of the moon. We on Earth  never get to see the far side or the dark side of the moon! Ever thought why?

Well… Let’s see why? the Moon makes one revolution around the Earth about every 29 days, and that’s what causes the Moon phases. But the Moon also rotates once every 29 days also. Because of this, the same side of the Moon always faces the Earth. This is because of something called tidal locking.

Tidal force is like, When you are standing up, Gravity acts on you. And your feet are just a little bit closer to the center of the Earth than your head, this means that the Earth pulls with a slightly larger gravitational force on the lower half of you than the upper half. This slight difference is called a tidal force.

When something like a Moon is close enough to a planet, these gravitational tidal forces cause the Moon to spin at the same rate that it revolves around the planet. When this happens, we call it tidal locking, and that’s why we always see the same side of the Moon!

If you want to know, how tides are formed on ocean, read this What really cause tides?Also, do you know that the far side of the moon doesn’t have the dark spots like on the near side of the moon? Find out why on my next article..

 

RFID! Is that the future of barcodes?

These days we see barcodes everywhere. Almost every product has a unique barcode, which contains all the information about the product. 1D barcodes can only hold a maximum of 85 characters and 2d  Barcodes can store over 7,000 characters. With 2D barcodes even complex information like expiration dates and serial numbers can be seen easily.

Before we get into RFID, let’s see how does a barcode and a barcode scanners work? 

If you look at a barcode, you can’t just make a wild guess on where one number ends and another one begins. Each digit in the product number is given the same amount of horizontal space: exactly 7 units. Then, to represent any of the numbers from zero to nine, we simply color those seven units with a different pattern of black and white stripes. So, in order to denote each number, there is a certain combination of white and black for each number from 0-9. The combination for each number is shown in the image below.

barcodestripes

So, how the scanner knows to read these? When light reflects back off barcode into a light-detecting electronic component called a photoelectric cell. White areas of the barcode reflect most light; black areas reflect least. The cell generates a pattern of on-off pulses that correspond to the black and white stripes.

RFID(Radio frequency identification): 

In barcodes, scanner could only scan one barcode at a time, but in RFID, a bunch of tags can be scanned at a time even from longer distances (up to 100 meters in some cases). RFID tags can be used in many places hotels, aeroplains, railways etc… With this technology in operation, you can just walk out of the grocery store with your products through the RFID scanner and without even waiting in a long billing line, get your total bill and payment done.

How RFID works?

A RFID has a tag or label and a reader. Tags are embedded with a transmitter and a receiver. The RFID component on the tags consists of a microchip that stores and processes information, and an antenna to receive and transmit a signal. The tag contains the specific serial number for one specific object.

To read the information encoded on a tag, a two-way radio transmitter-receiver called an interrogator or reader, emits a signal to the tag using an antenna. The tag responds with the information written in its memory bank. The interrogator will then transmit the information.

A passive RFID tag will use the interrogator’s radio wave energy to relay its stored information back to the interrogator.

A batter powered RFID tag is embedded with a small battery that powers the relay of information.

So, definetely it might be the future of barcodes…

Fun fact-  If a smartphone is inside an aluminum foil, covered with aluminum foil, it can’t be detected by any RFID scanner even your phone can’t recieve any calls.

 

 

Computer Part-2. Processors!! What does i3,i5,i7 mean?

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Part-1 (Computer part-1) of computer was all about, how a computer takes in info.. In this part-2 of computer let’s see what a processor does and how to choose a processor!! This is still an arguable and ground breaking issue …

processor is commonly referred to as the CPU. It can process computer instructions per second measured in hertz. So, it is important to check the clock speed… Like 2 GHz, 2.5 GHz etc..

When it comes to processors, it might be of any company Intel or AMD, the specifications we need to look at, are the same. Few important specs are: number of cores,  32 bit or 64 bit, Cache.. Let’s see each of them,

 

Number of cores (multi-core) 

We are so much familiar with the words single core, dual core, quad core etc.. Dual core has two single cores and quad core has four single cores. In simple words a single core is like one calculator, a dual core has two calculators.

This does’n mean that a 2 GHz dual core is equal to a 4 GHz single core in performance. All this means is that you have two 2 GHz cores working for you instead of one. This is so important to understand the difference, most people confuse here in selecting.

As it goes above, dual core has two calculators and single core has one calculator, if we give an instruction, suppose a mathematical calculation, we can use only one calculator at a time. Having two calculators or having dual core doesn’t make our job any faster in this case. Same is the case with dual core.. Then what is the use in getting dual core or even quad core?? It is so simple answer, when we give multiple instructions or in this case two mathematical calculations. Then each mathematical calculation uses one calculator, with this the two tasks will be completed in very less time..

So, number of cores is equal to number of calculators.. In order to make use of all the cores present there is something called “multi-threading.” A program that’s multi-threaded – written for more than one core – can take advantage of a multi-core processor, even for only one operation by dividing  it among the cores. Multi-cores benefit isn’t necessarily one of speed, but one of smoothness.

It’s so important to know that the extra cores may go to waste. More than that, more cores means more power draw and with that more heat. In a notebook, these become serious considerations.

32 bit or 64 bit? How to choose?

 

Every  hardware component in a laptop requires what’s called an “address” and it is normally be occupied by memory. Your computer knows everything in it by its address, and everything uses memory addresses. So if you only have 4 GB worth of addresses, all the other parts are going to start eating into that, leaving part of the 4 GB of physical memory you have untouched. This is why when you put 4 GB of memory into a Windows XP or Windows Vista 32-bit machine, Windows doesn’t give you the full 4 GB – it may give you as little as 2.5 GB or as much as 3.5 GB, depending on the hardware you have in your machine.

What a 64-bit processor and 64-bit operating system does is dramatically raise the amount of memory your computer can address. By increasing this limit, it allows the computer to see the full 4 GB and still have room for everything else. Still, the move to 64-bit, provided you’re running at least 4 GB of memory can generally be beneficial.

Cache:

 

Cache is basically a memory, or RAM, that’s been built into the processor. if cache is so much faster than memory (and it is), why bother with memory at all? Why not just integrate all that memory into the processor itself? Because memory is physically huge. Sure, it’s not that big when you look at a processor or a stick of memory, but on a typical processor, the L2 cache takes up roughly half the die. So if as little as 4MB of cache takes up that much space, try to fathom how much space 1GB would need.

So, don’t worry much about Cache

Now, let’s see Intel’s i3, i5, i7 processors!!

As long as you understand the above specifications and what each specification does, you are good to go…

First of all,these terms correspond to processors from the specific brand of Intel.

Before you make a purchase though, you should really think about what you are going to do with you computer.  If you are just using your computer to email, surf the web etc…You will be just as fine with a Core i3.

If you are editing multiple files in Adobe Flash, with virtualization software, playing the newest RPG computer game you may notice the Core i5 to be much more faster. The Core i5 is great.

The Core i7 are the current most expensive and top of the line from the Core series of Intel processors. For most computer users, the i7 is probably much more than they’ll actually need or even think they need.  But, if you want the best of the best that will run your video rendering programs, giant RPG games, and many other higher technical programs, go for i7.

There are still lot more to talk about computer which we would do in the next part!!:)

Boomerang!

Boomerangs have been around for thousands of years now. Traditionally, returning boomerangs are lightweight, made of wood, and consist of two separate wings which meet at an angle at the joining.

All boomerangs aren’t made to come back! Some are made just to hit the target. Now let’s see, how a coming back boomerangs work?

The top and bottom portions of a boomerang are made in an aerodynamic shape or an airfoil shape. Top one is Leading edge and the bottom one is trailing edge.  When boomerang is thrown and the air passes through this shape, it results in a lift as shown below.

airfoil_incorrect

When you throw a boomerang, there are two speeds to be considered, one in the forward direction and the other is rotating speed. This makes it fly and rotate at the same time. As the boomerang spins through the air, the wing at the top of the spin is moving through the air at a faster rate than the wing at the bottom. This makes the top portion generate more lift than the bottom portion as it cuts through the air.

brng

Because the top portion of the boomerang is moving faster than the bottom portion, some torque is generated, which makes the boomerang tilt the plane of rotation slightly such that, the boomerang ends up flying in a curved path through the air. This makes the boomerang come back. It’s not easy to catch the boomerang back. It depends on the angle and force with which you throw with..

 

 

All those images are from Google!

 

Science of Muscle building!

“Muscles”, there are three types of them Cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscles. Building muscles usually refered to building skeletal muscles

While you use your muscle to lift something, your muscle experience some tiny tears in the muscle fibers. This is the first step of muscle growth. So, tiny tearing of muscle fibers is good in this context. When muscle breaks, something called cytokins are released. These repair the muscle, that’s the time when the muscle grows.

But the correct amount of tension is required for a muscle to undergo tiny tears, which with the help of protein leads to muscle growth. That’s the reason why body building experts suggest to increase tension in the muscle gradually. In other words, gradually increase the weights you lift.

On the other hand, people who do calisthenics or body weight workouts, must know how to increase tension by incorporating compound movements where ever possible. Calisthenic exercises mostly have compound movements, which is good and absolutely helps build muscle. Personally I feel body weight workouts are the best. Because there is a lesser scope of getting injured, it has compound movements and the “burn” we feel after an intense body weight session is amazing.

The “burn” you feel after an intense workout is simply an infusion of lactic acid in the muscle, which is produced as a muscle burns its energy stores. The pump you feel when training is a result of blood being “trapped” in the muscles.

If a workout causes too many micro-tears, then the body will fail to fully repair the muscles, and muscle growth will be stunted. If a workout causes optimal micro-tearing but the body isn’t supplied with sufficient nutrition or rest, no appreciable amount of muscle growth will occur.

Building is all about exercising with correct tension, sufficient amount of rest and good food! And to take every nutrient correctly, for proteins sources, read more about the protein sources here Top 5 vegetarian protein sources.

Took that cool muscle GIF from Google😉

 

 

Computer! Part-1

As our modern days term goes, a machine that runs certain operations is known as a Computer. In the past before our “Electronic” computers, we had counting devices. Even an abacus or a mechanical calculator is a computer! Yeah, that’s true. Recall the basic requirement of a computer “To perform basic mathematical operations” right!

So what are operated in a computer? Yeah, numbers.. All those counting devices have their own ways of representing numbers.

Now, how do modern days electronic computers take numbers?

Well… Let’s see from the start. The basic way was representing every number using only 0’s and 1’s. We use something called “Boolean algebra” to do so. That’s actually something interesting and maybe you have already done it.

Then, how to use an electronic device to do so?

The basis for this is the voltage( high or low). High represents ‘1’ and low represents ‘0’. Making this basis, we have tried a bunch of devices. The first one was “vacuum tube”, consisted of an anode and a cathode(diode) in a vacuum created tube. Giving a voltage to the cathode release some electrons and are attracted towards the anode( with a higher ‘+’ potential), and by varying the voltage at cathode we get a “high” or “low”( 0 or 1).

Then we had triode, it just had an extra electrode between cathode and anode, which enables the flow of current. Varying the voltage of that extra electrode allows or stops the electrons to flow resulting in a ‘0’ or a ‘1’.

Though they work, those devices have their own disadvantages. Not efficient, bulky and all.

So, to overcome all those disadvantages scientists used “Transistors”. Unlike diodes where they use electrodes, transistor uses something called semiconductor. By using a method called “Doping”, we mix semiconductor with various elements. And create ‘p’type and ‘n’ type. When these n type and p type are arranged alternatively, it forms an npn transistor, with something called p-n junction between p type and n type.

And there is a voltage limit called threshold voltage, the current only passes through the junction, when the voltage is more than threshold voltage. If the voltage is low and the current won’t pass, then that’s a ‘0’ and if the voltage is high and the current passes through, then that’s a ‘1’.

This is how an “Electronic” computer takes in a number. Believe it or not, there might be millions or even more transistors in the electronic device through which YOU are reading this article;)

I want this to be like a big franchise titled “Computer”!!! This is just a beginning part-1, I am left with so much to talk about the machine responsible for making so many things happen, including my blog;)

 

 

“Gravitational Waves” found yet again!

Here’s a quick update…

Last year in september, for the first time ever scientists Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) have observed Gravitational waves. The source of these waves were the product of the collision between two black holes into a giant single black hole occured 1.3 billion light years away

On December 16 2015 LIGO observatory for the second time detected a signal, which now confirmed as Gravitational waves. The scientists at LIGO converted these gravitational waves into sound waves, here’s how they sound!

This yet again proves the Einsteins theory of relativity..
When two dense objects such as neutron stars or black holes orbit each other, space-time is stirred by their motion and gravitational energy ripples throughout the universe.

 Learn more from my previous articles about”Gravitational waves?“, “First ever discovery of gravitational waves“, and “Origin of our universe“!!

 

Hypnosis!!!

Check out the video above to see how hypnosis looks like.. And be prepared to hurt your jaws from laughing!!

Hypnosis has been around us from almost 300 years. Like we see in movies, it’s not brainwashing or magic. Hypnosis is a trance-like state of heightened concentration, we do experience this state when we do something which we enjoy the most…

Hypnosis results in some physical changes, like reduced rates of blinking the eye movements (saccades). Cats are scared of cucumber because they look like snakes, then why are domestic cats scared of cucumber, which haven’t ever seen snakes in their life time? Well.. The reason is, all mammals while they are in the womb experience a dream state called rem state, that is where mammals get their brains programmed. In case of cats they are programmed to be scared of snakes. Now, hypnosis is like altering that program!!

Try identifying the colour in which the words are written below…

main-qimg-885f51387cc16615417e2449ece4a5a2

In case of the words written in unknown language, we wont go wrong but, I guess most of you probably “Us” got it wrong in case of the words written in the language we understand! This is called “interference effect” that causes the meaning of the words to take priority over their visual colour. However with the post hypnosis, people were able to do this task effortlessly and even the MRI brain scan revealed that the brain region responsible for language did not become activated..

This explains Hypnosis is real but it’s no magic. Hypnosis is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness, a broad category that includes meditative states.. There is something called self-hypnosis, where in we hypnotise ourselves to get over anxiety during exams, overcoming tensions, building confidence for achieving goals etc…

Here’s how its done Self-Hypnosis… Self-Hypnosis is similar to Zen meditation, this word should be familiar to you if you had read one of my previous posts “Science of becoming batman” where in Batman(fictional character) learned zen meditation to get most effective rest in a less time…

 

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