Flying windmills!

“Energy”, don’t know how many times we use this word, but we surely use energy everyday. By now, we know what renewable energy sources are( if not go ahead and click here Renewable).

One of the most effective renewable sources of energy is wind energy, till now we have seen only the windmills on the ground producing energy. But, here are the new ones that are situated above the ground so called “Flying Windmills”.

So, what is the reason to put the windmills above the ground? Well… Higher altitudes offer upto five times stronger winds that are also consistent.

This thing flies with the help of helium filled shell. The airborne wind turbine will be held steady by making use of strong tethers which will also transfer the electricity generated to ground. And Flying windmills are actually tested!

Ben Glass, is the one who came with this idea. Learn more about these flying windmills from the video below.

And please do visit informaticcoolstuff.in

 

what is E-Paper? How it works?

E-Paper or Electronic Paper Display is pretty much similar to an ordinary paper. Then why E-Paper??

There are a lot of advantages with E-Paper, when we compare with ordinary paper ink, it can be electrically refreshed and written upon millions of times.

E-Ink takes advantage of interactions between computer processors and charged black and white particles. Unlike traditional displays like LCDs, LEDs etc… These E-Papers have an advantage of more readability, are flexible and these use very low power .

To get all these advantages together there are a few compromised features like low touch screen capability and less responsive than comparable LCD screen devices. E-Paper manufacturing companies are working to overcome these disadvantages..

The Electronic Paper technology is very futuristic and has a high potential in reducing the usage of paper indirectly saving the environment by not using thousands of trees for the manufacture of paper. E-Paper only use a limited power and can store thousands of books in a single portable device. This means you almost have a whole library in your hand.

After knowing all these interesting and amazingly useful advantages, you must be curious to know about the working of this E-paper right!

Firstly, There are two popular companies manufacturing E-Paper “Electronic inks” – E Ink and “Xerox”.

The e-ink looks very similar to normal ink but it has millions of tiny microcapsules also known as cavities, and are filled by an ink substance. There are pigmented chips or balls there balls are actually the colours that are displayed on the screen. Let’s say white and black. These ball are with a negative charge floating inside the microcapsule.  The ink would cover the entire page and the page is made out of some kind of ultra-thin plastic separated by cells that resemble the cells on graph paper.

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These cells are like pixels on a computer screen and each and every cell is wired to the micro level electronics embedded in the page made of ultra thin plastic. Using the basic concept, positive attracts negative or unlike poles attract, these microelectronics would then be used to apply a positive or negative charge to the microcapsules to create the desired text or images. For example, let, all the black balls are negative and all white balls are positive, then when a positive charge is given then, as per the instruction the black balls appear on the screen accomplishing specified task of presenting an image or a number etc…

Likewise, when an electrical charge is applied to the microcapsules, the chips will either rise to the top or be pulled to the bottom. When pushed to the top, the chips make the capsules look white; when they are pulled to the bottom, the viewer only sees the dark ink. Patterns of white and dark can then be created to form words and sentences.

Even more colours other than white and black are also coming to E-paper. There are plenty of gadgets which take the advantage of E-paper like Yotaphone 2, Pebble smart watches, Amazon kindle and also there are many stores which use e-paper to display product prices and other information instead of LCD and LED screens…

This has a lot of scope for development in the coming years! Let me know what you think!

Solar Panel! How does it work?

“Energy”, one of the most important necessities worldwide. There are a lot of ways to generate energy, creating energy through sun is termed as “Solar energy”. To generate energy from sun we use solar cells, solar modules and solar panels, and what are all these different terms? Well… Solar cells are often bundled together to make larger units called solar modules, and solar modules coupled into even bigger units known as solar panels. When the sun light falls on a solar cell, electric energy is generated!

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Firstly solar panels harness solar energy from the sun in individual solar cells. The energy is then transferred to an inverter which converts it to electricity, suitable for use in your home.

A semiconductor material such as silicon absorbs particles of light when the sun shines on the photovoltaic cells (PV cells) within solar panels. Particles of electricity (electrons) which are negatively charged, begin to flow through the solar cells in a single direction, which means that a current is created. The solar panels are constructed from a series of interconnected cells.

Is it that simple? Well.. Actually a lot is happening inside the solar panel, that is what we are gonna see now.

Solar cell is made of? Solar cell is a sandwich of two different layers of silicon. Why silicon?? To know why, first we need to understand a few terms. Conductors: These conductors conduct electricity.. Insulators: Other materials, such as plastics, wood etc… Don’t really conduct electricity at all.. Those materials are called insulators. Now Semiconductors like silicon are neither conductors nor insulators, they only conduct electricity under certain circumstances. Those are the circumstances we are interested in, now.

This silicon is actually specially doped, That is the “circumstance” we need to let electricity flow through them in a particular way. The lower layer is doped such that it has very few electrons. It’s called p-type or positive-type silicon, Why positive? Because electrons are negatively charged and this layer has too few of them. The upper layer is doped in the opposite way to give it slightly too many electrons. It’s called n-type or negative type silicon.

Now, if  light (made of photos) falls on the solar panel, that is on the silicon cell with a sufficient amount of energy to knock out the electron from its bond. A hole is formed. And as the electron is negatively charged, the electron goes to the n-side and the hole goes to the p-side. These freely moving electrons are collected, through which an external circuit is powered…

The power generated through these solar panels is DC (Direct current). Our homes run on AC, not on DC power. The inverter changes DC to AC or alternating current.

Each silicon cell can generate only half a watt of power, which is very less.. But when, these solar cells are combined to form a solar module, the power generated is high. It is even higher in the case of a solar panel. And there is nothing wasted in a solar cell except the never ending energy emitted by the sun, so these solar panels can sustain for decades.

There is a lot of “clean” and infinite energy coming from the sun, if we could be able to make use of it, there won’t be any energy crisis anytime soon.

Black spots on one side of the moon??

If you have read my previous article( Dark side of the moon), you might be knowing that, what this article would be all about… Well.. Go ahead and read it! If no time, here’s a quick recap… Only one side of the moon face our earth all the time, due to tidal locking. Now, let’s see  how those black spots are formed on one side and no such spots on the dark side..

When we see the moon from our earth, we can see some dark spots on the moon. But when the first ever photo of the dark side of the moon was captured, unlike the side of the moon we see, it was observed that there were no dark spots on the other side of the moon!

The technical term for those black spots is MARIA. Now, the rare side or the far side consists of massive mountains but the side of the moon we see does have those black spots or MARIA, why?

Before all these, how did those blackspots were formed??

One of many theories is… A few billions of years ago, a planet sized object hit the earth and the debris due to this collision resulted in the formation of the moon. At that time Earth and moon were just two hot burning ball and as the moon was smaller compared to earth, it cooled faster than earth but the way it was cooled was uneven, this uneven cooling was because of the fact that the side of the moon that is facing the earth was still experiencing the heat due to the earth. And the side that isn’t facing the earth was cooled already, well before the side of the moon facing the Earth.

Because of this uneven cooling of the moon, one side of the moon is denser than the other, this is also responsible for the moon to slow down and causing only the bulged side of the moon to face our earth or technically the “Tidal Locking”.

When asteroids kit the moon on the dark side, massive mountains were formed, on the other hand when asteroids hit the side of the moon facing the earth, the lava eruptions took place due to the weak crust and we see the solidified lava as the black spots from the Earth.

 

Dark side of the moon!!!

When we look at the moon in the night sky, all the time we only see one side of the moon. We on Earth  never get to see the far side or the dark side of the moon! Ever thought why?

Well… Let’s see why? the Moon makes one revolution around the Earth about every 29 days, and that’s what causes the Moon phases. But the Moon also rotates once every 29 days also. Because of this, the same side of the Moon always faces the Earth. This is because of something called tidal locking.

Tidal force is like, When you are standing up, Gravity acts on you. And your feet are just a little bit closer to the center of the Earth than your head, this means that the Earth pulls with a slightly larger gravitational force on the lower half of you than the upper half. This slight difference is called a tidal force.

When something like a Moon is close enough to a planet, these gravitational tidal forces cause the Moon to spin at the same rate that it revolves around the planet. When this happens, we call it tidal locking, and that’s why we always see the same side of the Moon!

If you want to know, how tides are formed on ocean, read this What really cause tides?Also, do you know that the far side of the moon doesn’t have the dark spots like on the near side of the moon? Find out why on my next article..

 

Machines that never stop!! Perpetual motion machines?

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Ever heard of a machine which never stops! Well… Technically it’s called Perpetual motion machine. Even if we manage to create one and set it going, it would keep on going until the Big Freeze. Big Freeze is theoretically the end of everything. It’s not set to happen for another 100 trillion years or so.  If that’s a perpetual motion, then it should run for atleast that time!!! Now, you know what to say when someone says, they have built a perpetual motion machine!!

But let’s see the origin story of these perpetual motion machines. The most common of these, and the oldest, is the overbalanced wheel. In a typical version, flexible arms are attached to the outer rim of a vertically mounted wheel. An inclined trough is arranged to transfer rolling weights from folded arms on one side of the wheel to fully extended arms on the other. The implicit assumption is that the weights exert more downward force at the ends of extended arms than is required to raise them on the other side, where they are kept closer to the axis of rotation by the folding of the arms.

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One of many perpetual motion machines are continuous motion that would supposedly be possible if hindrances like mechanical friction and electrical resistivity could be eliminated. But these are not those science problems where they give “IDEAL” objects.

Some part of those forces can be minimized but they can never be completely eliminated without spending additional energy. For instance superconductive metals, whose electrical resistance disappears completely at low temperature. Unfortunately, the energy required to maintain the low temperature exceeds the work that results from the superconductive flow.

There are a lot of machines like these, though there aren’t perfect perpetual motion machines, yet they are super cool to look at them. Some of them are:

Self-winding clock:  It dirives energy from changes in the temperature or pressure of the atmosphere. It depends upon the energy delivered to the Earth by the Sun and is not, therefore, a perpetual-motion machine.

Perpetual energy generator: Of course they don’t completely fulfill our requirement, yet that’s a very good idea..

 

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With water:

 52d42698952d20a7ce2b10c784ca64d4_machine_1316_866Boyle'sSelfFlowingFlask

Magnetic perpetual motion machines: They are a bunch of these around. Using and playing with the attraction and repulsion properties of magnets makes it even cooler..

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I have a question for you, I have come across this image on the internet;);)… My question is, does it work? And if yes, how?

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With all this, we can conclude that, for now actual perpetual motion machines can’t be build… And please do answer the question above;);)

 

Iris Scan vs Retina Scan…

With the introduction of Iris scan on a smartphone by Samsung, Iris scan has become more popular now. On a smartphone, initially we had no locks then we had password, later on finger-print scanners. Now, to reach the higher level of security we have IRIS scanner on a smartphone.

There is still a subtle confusion among people between iris scan and retina scan. So, let’s see the difference.

Retina: it’s the thin layer that is on the inner back of the eye. The thing is even identical twins do not share the same pattern of retina. However the retina patterns can be changed in case of diabetes or degenerative disorders of the retina.

How a retina scan works?? A retinal scan is performed by sending out an unobserved low-energy infrared light beam into a person’s eye as they look into the scanning device. This beam of light traces the systematized path of the retina. As the blood vessels of the retina are more light absorbent than the rest of the eye, the amount of reflected light varies during scanning. The result received is the pattern of those variations. And that received pattern is the unique identity or life saver or atleast information saver;)

Retina scan requires a very close encounter with the scanning device, that might be one the reasons why a retina scan is not preferred on smartphones.

Iris scan: Unlike retina, iris is flat, ring-shaped tissue behind the cornea of the eye.  The color of the iris defines the eye color.

How an Iris scanner works?? Iris recognition uses video camera with infrared illumination (NIR) on the smartphone or any iris scanner to capture images of the structures of the iris.The images are turned into digital templates and stored. These templates provide a mathematical representation of the iris. It represents a unique identity.

Iris texture always remains extremely stable, doesn’t change at all, because it is internal and protected.Moreover Iris scan can be done from a distance, that is one of the reasons why an iris scan is being used on smartphones.

 

 

Deep web and dark web??

Did you access your email or facebook or twitter or used drop-box today? If you did any one of those, then you accessed the deep web. The deep web isn’t some mysterious place, it’s just a collection of users private data. It’s hidden because we don’t want anyone to access our private information through facebook or twitter or data on dropbox.

It was estimated that the deep web is about 95% of all the data available online!!

The dark web is similar to the deep web in the respect that it is hidden from the normal web. However the dark web is not information that is not linked, rather it is purposely hidden. To access the dark web you need to use special tools like Tor or Freenet. These are the only ways to get to this hidden content. Though the deep web makes up 95% of all the internet the dark web only consist of about .03%. But that small section has millions of monthly users. The dark web is usually what people actually mean when they refer to the deep web.

 Deep web and Dark web aren’t same. The deep web is on the internet that has the stuff on the internet that can’t be accessed by our traditional search engines like Google. “Dark Web” on the other hand is a term used to describe areas on the internet accessible only through some softwares like TOR. It is the encrypted network that exists between TOR  servers and their clients. As the dark web is pretty much hidden, it is also used for some illegal things. But i have read that the dark web was created by US Navy for transmitting secured information.

What do you think?

Image- Deep-web

 

Boomerang!

Boomerangs have been around for thousands of years now. Traditionally, returning boomerangs are lightweight, made of wood, and consist of two separate wings which meet at an angle at the joining.

All boomerangs aren’t made to come back! Some are made just to hit the target. Now let’s see, how a coming back boomerangs work?

The top and bottom portions of a boomerang are made in an aerodynamic shape or an airfoil shape. Top one is Leading edge and the bottom one is trailing edge.  When boomerang is thrown and the air passes through this shape, it results in a lift as shown below.

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When you throw a boomerang, there are two speeds to be considered, one in the forward direction and the other is rotating speed. This makes it fly and rotate at the same time. As the boomerang spins through the air, the wing at the top of the spin is moving through the air at a faster rate than the wing at the bottom. This makes the top portion generate more lift than the bottom portion as it cuts through the air.

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Because the top portion of the boomerang is moving faster than the bottom portion, some torque is generated, which makes the boomerang tilt the plane of rotation slightly such that, the boomerang ends up flying in a curved path through the air. This makes the boomerang come back. It’s not easy to catch the boomerang back. It depends on the angle and force with which you throw with..

 

 

All those images are from Google!

 

Science of Muscle building!

“Muscles”, there are three types of them Cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscles. Building muscles usually refered to building skeletal muscles

While you use your muscle to lift something, your muscle experience some tiny tears in the muscle fibers. This is the first step of muscle growth. So, tiny tearing of muscle fibers is good in this context. When muscle breaks, something called cytokins are released. These repair the muscle, that’s the time when the muscle grows.

But the correct amount of tension is required for a muscle to undergo tiny tears, which with the help of protein leads to muscle growth. That’s the reason why body building experts suggest to increase tension in the muscle gradually. In other words, gradually increase the weights you lift.

On the other hand, people who do calisthenics or body weight workouts, must know how to increase tension by incorporating compound movements where ever possible. Calisthenic exercises mostly have compound movements, which is good and absolutely helps build muscle. Personally I feel body weight workouts are the best. Because there is a lesser scope of getting injured, it has compound movements and the “burn” we feel after an intense body weight session is amazing.

The “burn” you feel after an intense workout is simply an infusion of lactic acid in the muscle, which is produced as a muscle burns its energy stores. The pump you feel when training is a result of blood being “trapped” in the muscles.

If a workout causes too many micro-tears, then the body will fail to fully repair the muscles, and muscle growth will be stunted. If a workout causes optimal micro-tearing but the body isn’t supplied with sufficient nutrition or rest, no appreciable amount of muscle growth will occur.

Building is all about exercising with correct tension, sufficient amount of rest and good food! And to take every nutrient correctly, for proteins sources, read more about the protein sources here Top 5 vegetarian protein sources.

Took that cool muscle GIF from Google😉

 

 

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